Cookies Policy
X

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

Open Access Updated distribution and biogeography of amphibians and reptiles of Europe

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.
Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the Brill platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.
Updated distribution and biogeography of amphibians and reptiles of Europe

  • PDF
  • HTML
Add to Favorites

A precise knowledge of the spatial distribution of taxa is essential for decision-making processes in land management and biodiversity conservation, both for present and under future global change scenarios. This is a key base for several scientific disciplines (e.g. macro-ecology, biogeography, evolutionary biology, spatial planning, or environmental impact assessment) that rely on species distribution maps. An atlas summarizing the distribution of European amphibians and reptiles with 50 × 50 km resolution maps based on ca. 85 000 grid records was published by the Societas Europaea Herpetologica (SEH) in 1997. Since then, more detailed species distribution maps covering large parts of Europe became available, while taxonomic progress has led to a plethora of taxonomic changes including new species descriptions. To account for these progresses, we compiled information from different data sources: published in books and websites, ongoing national atlases, personal data kindly provided to the SEH, the 1997 European Atlas, and the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). Databases were homogenised, deleting all information except species names and coordinates, projected to the same coordinate system (WGS84) and transformed into a 50 × 50 km grid. The newly compiled database comprises more than 384 000 grid and locality records distributed across 40 countries. We calculated species richness maps as well as maps of Corrected Weighted Endemism and defined species distribution types (i.e. groups of species with similar distribution patterns) by hierarchical cluster analysis using Jaccard’s index as association measure. Our analysis serves as a preliminary step towards an interactive, dynamic and online distributed database system (NA2RE system) of the current spatial distribution of European amphibians and reptiles. The NA2RE system will serve as well to monitor potential temporal changes in their distributions. Grid maps of all species are made available along with this paper as a tool for decision-making and conservation-related studies and actions. We also identify taxonomic and geographic gaps of knowledge that need to be filled, and we highlight the need to add temporal and altitudinal data for all records, to allow tracking potential species distribution changes as well as detailed modelling of the impacts of land use and climate change on European amphibians and reptiles.

Affiliations: 1: 1Centro de Investigação em Ciências Geo-Espaciais, Alameda do Monte da Virgem, 4430-146 Vila Nova de Gaia, Portugal; 2: 2Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Università di Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 1, 20126 Milano, Italy; 3: 3Museo di Storia Naturale dell’Università di Firenze, Sezione di Zoologia “La Specola”, Via Romana 17, 50125 Firenze, Italia; 4: 4RAVON, Postbus 1413, 6501 BK Nijmegen, The Netherlands; 5: 5CNRS-UMR5175 CEFE, Centre d’Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive, 1919, route de Mende, 34293 Montpellier, France; 6: 8F.R.S. – FNRS Research Associate, Behavioural Biology Unit, University of Liège, 22 Quai van Beneden, 4020 Liege, Belgium; 7: 9CIBIO, University of Porto, R. Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal; 8: 10Institute of Ecology and Evolution, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 117071, Russia; 9: 11Natural History Museum of Crete, University of Crete, Knossou Ave., P.O. Box 2208, 71409 Heraklion Crete, Greece; 10: 14Technische Universität Braunschweig, Division of Evolutionary Biology, Zoological Institute, Mendelssohnstr. 4, 38108 Braunschweig, Germany; 11: 15c/o Museo Civico di Storia Naturale, via San Francesco di Sales 88, 10022 Carmagnola (TO), Italia; 12: 16Research Institute for Nature and Forest, Kliniekstraat 25, 1070 Brussels, Belgium; 13: 17University of Twente, Faculty of Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation (ITC), P.O. Box 217, 7500 AA Enschede, The Netherlands

A precise knowledge of the spatial distribution of taxa is essential for decision-making processes in land management and biodiversity conservation, both for present and under future global change scenarios. This is a key base for several scientific disciplines (e.g. macro-ecology, biogeography, evolutionary biology, spatial planning, or environmental impact assessment) that rely on species distribution maps. An atlas summarizing the distribution of European amphibians and reptiles with 50 × 50 km resolution maps based on ca. 85 000 grid records was published by the Societas Europaea Herpetologica (SEH) in 1997. Since then, more detailed species distribution maps covering large parts of Europe became available, while taxonomic progress has led to a plethora of taxonomic changes including new species descriptions. To account for these progresses, we compiled information from different data sources: published in books and websites, ongoing national atlases, personal data kindly provided to the SEH, the 1997 European Atlas, and the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). Databases were homogenised, deleting all information except species names and coordinates, projected to the same coordinate system (WGS84) and transformed into a 50 × 50 km grid. The newly compiled database comprises more than 384 000 grid and locality records distributed across 40 countries. We calculated species richness maps as well as maps of Corrected Weighted Endemism and defined species distribution types (i.e. groups of species with similar distribution patterns) by hierarchical cluster analysis using Jaccard’s index as association measure. Our analysis serves as a preliminary step towards an interactive, dynamic and online distributed database system (NA2RE system) of the current spatial distribution of European amphibians and reptiles. The NA2RE system will serve as well to monitor potential temporal changes in their distributions. Grid maps of all species are made available along with this paper as a tool for decision-making and conservation-related studies and actions. We also identify taxonomic and geographic gaps of knowledge that need to be filled, and we highlight the need to add temporal and altitudinal data for all records, to allow tracking potential species distribution changes as well as detailed modelling of the impacts of land use and climate change on European amphibians and reptiles.

Loading

Full text loading...

/deliver/journals/15685381/35/1/15685381_035_01_S01_text.html;jsessionid=rimj7dojnz0k.x-brill-live-02?itemId=/content/journals/10.1163/15685381-00002935&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah
/content/journals/10.1163/15685381-00002935
Loading

Data & Media loading...

1. Anthony B. , Arntzen J.W. , Baha el Din S. , Böhme W. , Cogălniceanu D. , Crnobrnja-Isailović J. , Crochet P.-A. , Corti C. , Griffiths R. , Kaneko Y. , Kuzmin S. , Lau M.W.N. , Li P. , Lymberakis P. , Marquez R. , Papenfuss T. , Pleguezuelos J.M. , Rastegar N. , Schmidt B. , Slimani T. , Sparreboom M. , Ugurtas I. , Werner Y. , Xie F. ( 2008): Amphibians of the Palearctic realm. In: Threatened Amphibians of the World, p. 106-111. Stuart, S.N., Hoffmann, M., Chanson, J.S., Cox, N.A., Berridge, R.J., Ramani, P., Young, B.E., Eds, Lynx, Barcelona.
2. Araújo M.B. , Pearson R.G. ( 2005): "Equilibrium of species’ distributions with climate". Ecography Vol 5: 693- 695. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2005.0906-7590.04253.x
3. Araújo M.B. , Thuiller W. , Williams P.H. , Reginster I. ( 2005): "Downscaling European species atlas distributions to a finer resolution: implications for conservation planning". Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. Vol 1: 17- 30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1466-822X.2004.00128.x
4. Araújo M.B. , Thuiller W. , Pearson R.G. ( 2006): "Climate warming and the decline of amphibians and reptiles in Europe". J. Biogeogr. Vol 33: 1712- 1728. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2699.2006.01482.x
5. Araújo M.B. , Nogués-Bravo D. , Valdes P.J. , Rahbek C. ( 2008): "Quaternary climate changes explain diversity among reptiles and amphibians". Ecography Vol 31: 8- 15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2007.0906-7590.05318.x
6. Arnold H.R. ( 1995): Atlas of amphibians and reptiles in Britain. ITE research publication no. 10, London, HMSO.
7. Baha el Din S. , Böhme W. , Corti C. , Crnobrnja-Isailović J. , Lymberakis P. , Marquez M. , Miaud C. , Slimani T. , Ugurtas I. , Werner Y. ( 2008): The status and distribution of amphibians in the Mediterranean Basin. In: Threatened Amphibians of the World, p. 113. Stuart, S.N., Hoffmann, M., Chanson, J.S., Cox, N.A., Berridge, R.J., Ramani, P., Young, B.E., Eds, Lynx, Barcelona.
8. Baroni-Urbani C. , Collingwood C.A. ( 1976): "A numerical analysis of the distribution of British Formicidae (Hymenoptera, Aculeata)". Verhandl. Naturf. Ges. Basel Vol 85: 51- 91.
9. Baroni-Urbani C. , Collingwood C.A. ( 1977): "The zoogeography of ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in Northern Europe". Acta Zool. Fennica Vol 152: 2- 34.
10. Baroni-Urbani C. , Ruffo S. , Vigna Taglianti A. ( 1978): "Materiali per uma biogeografia italiana fondata se alcuni generi di coleotteri cicindelidi, carabidi, e crisomelidi". Estr. Mem. Soc. Ent. Ital. Vol 56: 35- 92.
11. Bauwens D. , Claus K. ( 1996): Verspreiding van Amfibieën en Reptielen in Vlaanderen. De Wielewaal Natuurvereniging, Turnhout, Belgium.
12. Bitz A. , Fischer K. , Simon L. , Thiele R. , Veith M. , Eds ( 1996): Die Amphibien und Reptilien in Rheinland-Pfalz. GNOR, Nassau, Germany.
13. Boakes E.H. , McGowan P.J.K. , Fuller R.A. , Ding C.Q. , Clark N.E. , O’Connor K. , Mace G.M. ( 2010): "Distorted views of biodiversity: spatial and temporal bias in species occurrence data". PLoS Biology Vol 8: e1000385. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000385
14. Böhm M. , Collen B. , Baillie J.E.M. , Bowles P. , Chanson J. , Cox N. , Hammerson G. , Hoffmann M. , Livingstone S.R. , Ram M. , Rhodin A.G.J. , Stuart S.N. , van Dijk P.P. , Young B.E. , Afuang L.E. , Aghasyan A. , García A. , Aguilar C. , Ajtic R. , Akarsu F. , Alencar L.R.V. , Allison A. , Ananjeva N. , Anderson S. , Andrén C. , Ariano-Sánchez D. , Arredondo J.C. , Auliya M. , Austin C.C. , Avci A. , Baker P.J. , Barreto-Lima A.F. , Barrio-Amorós C.L. , Basu D. , Bates M.F. , Batistella A. , Bauer A. , Bennett D. , Böhme W. , Broadley D. , Brown R. , Burgess J. , Captain A. , Carreira S. , Castañeda M.D.R. , Castro F. , Catenazzi A. , Cedeño-Vázquez J.R. , Chapple D.G. , Cheylan M. , Cisneros-Heredia D.F. , Cogalniceanu D. , Cogger H. , Corti C. , Costa G.C. , Couper P.J. , Courtney T. , Crnobrnja-Isailovic J. , Crochet P.-A. , Crother B. , Cruz F. , Daltry J.C. , Daniels R.J.R. , Das I. , de Silva A. , Diesmos A.C. , Dirksen L. , Doan T.M. , Dodd C.K. , Doody J.S. , Dorcas M.E. , Duarte de Barros Filho J. , Egan V.T. , El Mouden E.H. , Embert D. , Espinoza R.E. , Fallabrino A. , Feng X. , Feng Z.-J. , Fitzgerald L. , Flores-Villela O. , França F.G.R. , Frost D. , Gadsden H. , Gamble T. , Ganesh S.R. , Garcia M.A. , García-Pérez J.E. , Gatus J. , Gaulke M. , Geniez P. , Georges A. , Gerlach J. , Goldberg S. , Gonzalez J.-C.T. , Gower D.J. , Grant T. , Greenbaum E. , Grieco C. , Guo P. , Hamilton A.M. , Hare K. , Hedges S.B. , Heideman N. , Hilton-Taylor C. , Hitchmough R. , Hollingsworth B. , Hutchinson M. , Ineich I. , Iverson J. , Jaksic F.M. , Jenkins R. , Joger U. , Jose R. , Kaska Y. , Kaya U. , Keogh J.S. , Köhler G. , Kuchling G. , Kumlutaş Y. , Kwet A. , La Marca E. , Lamar W. , Lane A. , Lardner B. , Latta C. , Latta G. , Lau M. , Lavin P. , Lawson D. , LeBreton M. , Lehr E. , Limpus D. , Lipczynski N. , Lobo A.S. , López-Luna M.A. , Luiselli L. , Lukoschek V. , Lundberg M. , Lymberakis P. , Macey R. , Magnusson W.E. , Mahler D.L. , Malhotra A. , Mariaux J. , Maritz B. , Marques O.A.V. , Márquez R. , Martins M. , Masterson G. , Mateo J.A. , Mathew R. , Mathews N. , Mayer G. , McCranie J.R. , Measey G.J. , Mendoza-Quijano F. , Menegon M. , Métrailler S. , Milton D.A. , Montgomery C. , Morato S.A.A. , Mott T. , Muñoz-Alonso A. , Murphy J. , Nguyen T.Q. , Nilson G. , Nogueira C. , Núñez H. , Orlov N. , Ota H. , Ottenwalder J. , Papenfuss T. , Pasachnik S. , Passos P. , Pauwels O.S.G. , Pérez-Buitrago N. , Pérez-Mellado V. , Pianka E.R. , Pleguezuelos J. , Pollock C. , Ponce-Campos P. , Powell R. , Pupin F. , Quintero Díaz G.E. , Radder R. , Ramer J. , Rasmussen A.R. , Raxworthy C. , Reynolds R. , Richman N. , Rico E.L. , Riservato E. , Rivas G. , da Rocha P.L.B. , Rödel M.-O. , Rodríguez Schettino L. , Roosenburg W.M. , Ross J.P. , Sadek R. , Sanders K. , Santos-Barrera G. , Schleich H.H. , Schmidt B.R. , Schmitz A. , Sharifi M. , Shea G. , Shi H.-T. , Shine R. , Sindaco R. , Slimani T. , Somaweera R. , Spawls S. , Stafford P. , Stuebing R. , Sweet S. , Sy E. , Temple H.J. , Tognelli M.F. , Tolley K. , Tolson P.J. , Tuniyev B. , Tuniyev S. , Üzüm N. , van Buurt G. , Van Sluys M. , Velasco A. , Vences M. , Veselý M. , Vinke S. , Vinke T. , Vogel G. , Vogrin M. , Vogt R.C. , Wearn O.R. , Werner Y.L. , Whiting M.J. , Wiewandt T. , Wilkinson J. , Wilson B. , Wren S. , Zamin T. , Zhou K. , Zug G. ( 2013): "The conservation status of the world’s reptiles". Biol. Conserv. Vol 157: 372- 385. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2012.07.015
15. Bonardi A. , Manenti R. , Corbetta A. , Ferri V. , Fiacchini D. , Giovine G. , Macchi S. , Romanazzi E. , Soccini C. , Bottoni L. , Padoa Schioppa E. , Ficetola G.F. ( 2011): "Usefulness of volunteer data to measure the large scale decline of “common” toad populations". Biol. Conserv. Vol 144: 2328- 2334. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2011.06.011
16. Bonter D.N. , Cooper C.B. ( 2012): "Data validation in citizen science: a case study from Project FeederWatch". Front Ecol. Environ. Vol 10: 305- 309. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/110273
17. Bunce R.H. , Carey P. , Elena-Rossello R. , Orr J. , Watkins J. , Fuller R. ( 2002): "A comparison of different biogeographical classifications of Europe, Great Britain and Spain". J. Environ. Managem. Vol 2: 121- 134.
18. Cabela A. , Grillitsch H. , Tiedemann F. ( 2001): Atlas zur Verbreitung und Ökologie der Amphibien und Reptilien in Österreich: Auswertung der herpetofaunistischen Datenbank der herpetologischen Sammlung des naturhistorischen Museums in Wien. Umweltbundesamt, Vienna, Austria.
19. Cheers C. ( 2005): Geographica – The Complete Illustrated Atlas of the World. Random House, Australia.
20. Cogălniceanu D. , Szekely P. , Samoilă C. , Iosif R. , Tudor M. , Plăiaşu R. , Stănescu F. , Rozylowicz L. ( 2013a): "Diversity and distribution of amphibians in Romania". ZooKeys Vol 296: 35- 57. http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.296.4872
21. Cogălniceanu D. , Rozylowicz L. , Székely P. , Samoilă C. , Stănescu F. , Tudor M. , Székely D. , Iosif R. ( 2013b): "Diversity and distribution of reptiles in Romania". ZooKeys Vol 341: 49- 76. http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.341.5502
22. Corti C. , Nistri A. , Poggesi M. , Vanni S. ( 1991): "Biogeographical analysis of the Tuscan herpetofauna (Central Italy)". Rev. Esp. Herp. Vol 5 [1990]: 51- 75.
23. Corti C. , Lo Cascio P. , Vanni S. , Turrisi G.F. , Vaccaro A. ( 1997): "Amphibians and Reptiles of the circumsicilian islands: new data and some considerations". Boll. Mus. Reg. Sci. Nat. Torino Vol 15( 1): 179- 211.
24. Corti C. , Masseti M. , Delfino M. , Perez-Mellado V. ( 1999): "Man and herpetofauna of the Mediterranean islands". Rev. Esp. Herp. Vol 13: 83- 100.
25. Corti C. , Capula M. , Luiselli L. , Sindaco R. , Razzetti E. , Eds ( 2010): Fauna d’Italia, Vol Vol. XLV, Reptilia. Calderini, Bologna, Italy.
26. Cox N. , Chanson J. , Stuart S. ( 2006): The Status and Distribution of Reptiles and Amphibians of the Mediterranean Basin. Gland, Switzerlandand IUCN, Cambridge, UK. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.CH.2006.MRA.2.en
27. Creemers R.C.M. , van Delft J.J.C.W. , Eds ( 2009): De Amfibieën en Reptielen van Nederland. – Nederlandse Fauna. Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum Naturalis, European Invertebrate Survey – Leiden, Netherlands.
28. Crisp M.D. , Laffan S. , Linder H.Ü. , Monro A. ( 2001): "Endemism in the Australian flora". J. Biogeogr. Vol 28: 183- 198. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2699.2001.00524.x
29. Danho N. ( 2003): Endemicity tools. ESRI Support. ( accessed: November 2012).
30. Denoël M. ( 2012): "Newt decline in Western Europe: highlights from relative distribution changes within guilds". Biodivers. Conserv. Vol 21: 2887- 2898. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10531-012-0343-x
31. Ficetola G.F. , Bonardi A. , Sindaco R. , Padoa-Schioppa E. ( 2013): "Estimating patterns of reptile biodiversity in remote regions". J. Biogeogr. Vol 40: 1202- 1211. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jbi.12060
32. Gasc J.-P. , Cabela A. , Crnobrnja-Isailović J. , Dolmen D. , Grossenbacher K. , Haffner P. , Lescure J. , Martens H. , Martínez-Rica J.P. , Maurin H. , Oliveira M.E. , Sofianidou T.S. , Veith M. , Zuiderwijk A. ( 1997): Atlas of Amphibians and Reptiles in Europe. Societas Europaea Herpetologica and Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, Paris.
33. Głowaciński Z. , Rafiński J. , Eds ( 2003): Atlas płazów i gadów Polski. Status – Rozmieszczenie – Ochrona. Inspekcja Ochrony Środowiska, Instytut Ochrony Przyrody PAN, Warszawa-Kraków, Poland.
34. Günther R. , Ed. ( 1996): Die Amphibien und Reptilien Deutschlands. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Jena.
35. Hofer U. , Monney J.-C. , Dušej G. ( 2001): Die Reptilien der Schweiz: Verbreitung, Lebensräume, Schutz / Les Reptiles de Suisse: Répartition, Habitats, Protection / I Rettili della Svizzera: Distribuzione, Habitat, Protezione. Birkhäuser, Basel. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-0348-8316-0
36. Hopkins W.A. ( 2007): "Amphibians as models for studying environmental change". Ilar. J. Vol 48: 270- 277. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ilar.48.3.270
37. IUCN (International World Conservation Union)( 2001): IUCN red list categories. Version 3.1. Species Survival Commission, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland, and Cambridge, United Kingdom.
38. IUCN (International World Conservation Union)( 2012): The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. . Downloaded on 17 October 2012.
39. Jacob J.-P. , Percsy C. , de Wavrin H. , Graitson E. , Kinet T. , Denoël M. , Paquay M. , Percsy N. , Remacle A. ( 2007): Amphibiens et Reptiles de Wallonie. Série Faune – Flore – Habitats n o2. Aves – Raînne et Direction Générale des Ressources naturelles et de l’Environnement, Ministère de la Région wallonne, Namur, Belgium.
40. Jalas J. , Suonuinen J. ( 1972): Atlas Florae Europaea. Distribution of Vascular Plants in Europe, Vol. 1: Pteridophyta. (T. C. for Mapping the Flora of Europe and Societas Biologica Fennica Vanamo, Ed.). Helsinki, Finland.
41. Jetz W. , McPherson J.M. , Guralnick R.P. ( 2011): "Integrating biodiversity distribution knowledge: toward a global map of life". Trends. Ecol. Evol. Vol 27: 151- 159. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2011.09.007
42. Joger U. , Fritz U. , Guicking D. , Kalyabina-Hauf S. , Nagy Z.T. , Wink M. ( 2007): "Phylogeography of western Palaearctic reptiles – Spatial and temporal speciation patterns". Zoolr. Anz. Vol 246: 293- 313. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcz.2007.09.002
43. Kuzmin S.L. ( 2013): The Amphibians of the Former Soviet Union. Pensoft Publisher, Sofia and Moscow.
44. Kypnjehko B.E. , Bepbec H.T. ( 1999): Amphibians and Reptiles of Ukraine. Genesa, Kiev.
45. Laffan S.W. , Crisp M.D. ( 2003): "Assessing endemism at multiple spatial scales, with an example from the Australian vascular flora". J. Biogeogr. Vol 30: 511- 520. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2699.2003.00875.x
46. Laffan S.W. , Ramp D. , Roger E. ( 2012): "Using endemism to assess representation of protected areas – the family Myrtaceae in the Greater Blue Mountains World Heritage Area". J. Biogeogr. Vol 40: 570- 578. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jbi.12001
47. Lanza B. , Andreone F. , Bologna M.A. , Corti C. , Razzetti E. , Eds ( 2007): Fauna d’Italia, Vol Vol. XLII, Amphibia. Calderini, Bologna, Italy.
48. Laufer H. , Klemens F. , Sowig P. , Eds ( 2007): Die Amphibien und Reptilien Baden-Württembergs. Ulmer Verlag, Stuttgart.
49. Lescure J. , de Massary J.C. , Eds ( 2013): Atlas des Amphibiens et Reptiles de France. Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle. Biotope Eds, Paris.
50. Longley P.A. , Goodchild M.F. , Maguire D.J. , Rhind D.W. ( 2010): Geographical Information Systems and Science, 3rd Edition. John Wiley, New York.
51. Loureiro A. , Ferrand N. , Carretero M.A. , Paulo O. ( 2010): Atlas dos Anfíbios e Répteis de Portugal. Sfera do Caos, Lisboa.
52. Loureiro A. , Sillero N. ( 2010): "Metodologia". In: Atlas dos anfíbios e répteis de Portugal, p.  66- 74. Loureiro A. , Ferrand N. , Carretero M.A. , Paulo O. , Eds, Esfera do Caos, Lisboa.
53. Mertens R. , Wermuth H. ( 1960): Die Amphibien und Reptilien Europas. (Dritte Liste, nach dem Stand vom 1. Januar 1960). Frankfurt am Main, Verlag Waldemar Kramer.
54. Meyer A. , Zumbach S. , Schmidt B. , Monney J.-C. ( 2009): Les Amphibiens et les Reptiles de Suisse Bern, Switzerland. Haupt Verlag.
55. Oksanen J. , Blanchet F.G. , Kindt R. , Legendre P. , Minchin P.R. , O’Hara R.B. , Simpson G.L. , Solymos P. , Stevens M.H.H. , Wagner H. ( 2012): vegan: Community Ecology Package. R package version 2.0-5.
56. Olivero J. , Real R. , Márquez A.L. ( 2011): "Fuzzy chorotypes as a conceptual tool to improve insight into biogeographic patterns". Systc. Biol. Vol 60: 645- 660. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/sysbio/syr026
57. Pleguezuelos J.M. , Ed. ( 1997): Distribución y Biogeografía de los Anfibios y Reptiles en España y Portugal. Asociación Herpetológica Española – Universidad de Granada, Spain.
58. Pleguezuelos J.M. , Márquez R. , Lizana M. , Eds ( 2002): Atlas y Libro Rojo de los Anfibios y Reptiles de España. Dirección General de la Conservación de la naturaleza-Asociación Herpetológica Española (2 aimpresión). Madrid, Spain.
59. Proess R. , Ed. ( 2003): Verbreitungsatlas der Amphibien des Grossherzogtums Luxemburg. Ferantia 37, Travaux Scientifiques du Musée national d’Histoire naturelle, Luxembourg.
60. Proess R. , Ed. ( 2007): Verbreitungsatlas der Reptilien des Großherzogtums Luxemburg. Ferantia 37, Travaux Scientifiques du Musée national d’histoire naturelle, Luxembourg.
61. Puky M. , Schad P. , Szövenyi G. ( 2006): Herpetological atlas of Hungary/Magyarorszag herpetologiai atlasza. IUCN SSC Hungary.
62. R Development Core Team( 2012): R: a Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. ISBN 3-900051-07-0, URL .
63. Rueda M. , Rodríguez M.A. , Hawkins B.A. ( 2010): "Towards a biogeographic regionalization of the European biota". J. Biogeogr. Vol 11: 2067- 2076. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2699.2010.02388.x
64. Sillero N. ( 2011): "What does ecological modelling model? A proposed classification of ecological niche models based on their underlying methods". Ecol. Model. Vol 222: 1343- 1346. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2011.01.018
65. Sillero N. , Celaya L. , Martín-Alfageme S. ( 2005): "Using GIS to make an atlas: A proposal to collect, store, map and analyse chorological data for herpetofauna". Rev. Esp. Herpetol. Vol 19: 87- 101.
66. Sillero N. , Brito J.C. , Toxopeus B. , Skidmore A.K. ( 2009): "Biogeographical patterns derived from remote sensing variables: the amphibians and reptiles of the Iberian Peninsula". Amphibia-Reptilia Vol 30: 185- 206. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/156853809788201207
67. Sillero N. , Amaro M. , Sousa F. , Sousa P. , Gonçalves-Seco L. ( 2014): "Distributed database system of the new atlas of amphibians and reptiles in Europe: the NA2RE project". Amphibia-Reptilia Vol 35: 33- 39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/15685381-00002935
68. Sindaco R. , Doria G. , Razzetti E. , Bernini F. , Eds ( 2006): Atlante degli Anfibi e dei Rettili d’Italia/Atlas of Italian Amphibians and Reptiles. Societas Herpetologica Italica. Edizioni Polistampa, Firenze, Italy.
69. Sinervo B. , Méndez-de-la-Cruz F. , Miles D.B. , Heulin B. , Bastiaans E. , Villagrán-Santa Cruz M. , Lara-Resendiz R. , Martínez-Méndez N. , Calderón-Espinosa M.L. , Meza-Lázaro R.N. , Gadsden H. , Avila L.J. , Morando M. , De la Riva I.J. , Victoriano Sepulveda P. , Rocha C.F. , Ibargüengoytía N. , Aguilar Puntriano C. , Massot M. , Lepetz V. , Oksanen T.A. , Chapple D.G. , Bauer A.M. , Branch W.R. , Clobert J. , Sites J.W. Jr. ( 2010): "Erosion of lizard diversity by climate change and altered thermal niches". Science Vol 328: 894- 899. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1184695
70. Speybroeck J. , Beukema W. , Crochet P.A. ( 2010): "A tentative species list of the European herpetofauna (Amphibia and Reptilia): an update". Zootaxa Vol 2492: 1- 27.
71. Stuart S.N. , Chanson J.S. , Cox N.A. , Young B.E. , Rodrigues A.S.L. , Fischman D.L. , Waller R.W. ( 2004): "Status and trends of amphibian declines and extinctions worldwide". Science Vol 306: 1783- 1786. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1103538
72. Valakos E. , Pafilis P. , Sotiropoulos K. , Lymberakis P. , Maragou P. , Foufopoulos J. ( 2008): The Amphibians and Reptiles of Greece. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main.
73. Vences M. , Guayasamin J.M. , Miralles A. , de la Riva I. ( 2013): "To name or not to name: Criteria to promote economy of change in Linnaean classification schemes". Zootaxa Vol 3636: 201- 244. http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3636.2.1
74. Vigna Taglianti A. , Audisio P. , Biondi M. , Bologna M.A. , Carpaneto G.M. , De Biase A. , Fattorini S. , Piattella E. , Sindaco R. , Venchi A. , Zapparoli M. ( 1999): "A proposal for a chorotype classification of the Near East fauna, in the framework of the Western Palearctic region". Biogeographia Vol 20: 31- 59.
75. Wake D.B. , Vredenburg V.T. ( 2008): "Are we in the midst of the sixth mass extinction? A view from the world of amphibians". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA Vol 105: 11466- 11473. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0801921105
76. Weiserbs A. , Jacob J.P. ( 2005): Amphibiens et Reptiles de la Région de Bruxelles-Capitale. Aves & Institut Bruxellois pour la Gestion de l’Environnement, Bruxelles, Belgium.
77. Wielstra B. , Arntzen J.W. ( 2011): "Unraveling the rapid radiation of crested newts ( Triturus cristatussuperspecies) using complete mitogenomic sequences". BMC Evol. Biol. Vol 11: 162. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2148-11-162
http://brill.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1163/15685381-00002935
Loading
Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1163/15685381-00002935
2014-01-01
2016-06-30

Sign-in

Can't access your account?
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation