Cookies Policy

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

Phylogeography of grass snakes (Natrix natrix) all around the Baltic Sea: implications for the Holocene colonization of Fennoscandia

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

Access this article

+ Tax (if applicable)
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

image of Amphibia-Reptilia

We show that Fennoscandia was invaded in the Holocene by three distinct mitochondrial lineages of Natrix natrix. Two of these lineages arrived from the south, and one from the east. One of the ‘southern lineages’ is confined to Gotland, where also the second ‘southern lineage’ is found. The latter is widely distributed in the southwestern Baltic region, western Fennoscandia and on the Åland Islands, while the other lineage present on Gotland is only known from a few sites in the Baltic region. In addition, we recorded a third mitochondrial lineage in southern continental Finland, which was previously unknown from Fennoscandia. This lineage also occurs in the southeastern Baltic region and further east, suggesting that southern Finland was colonized from the east. Thus, the phylogeography of N. natrix matches a general paradigm for Fennoscandia, with Holocene invasions from the south and east.

Affiliations: 1: 1Museum of Zoology (Museum für Tierkunde), Senckenberg Dresden, A.B. Meyer Building, D-01109 Dresden, Germany; 2: 2Irisvej 8, DK-4600 Køge, Denmark


Full text loading...


Data & Media loading...

1. Aaris-Sørensen K. ( 1980): "Atlantic fish, reptile, and bird remains from the Mesolithic settlement at Vedbæk, North Zealand". Vidensk. Medd. Dansk naturh. Foren. Vol 142: 139- 149.
2. Björck S. ( 1995): "A review of the history of the Baltic Sea, 13.0-8.0 ka BP". Quatern. Int. Vol 27: 19- 40. [Crossref]
3. Böhme W. , Grell O. ( 2013): "Ringelnattern, Natrix natrix(Linnaeus, 1758), auf Sylt (Schleswig-Holstein): eingeschleppt aus verschiedenen Ländern?" Faun.-Ökol. Mitt. Vol 9: 311- 317.
4. Brunhoff C. , Galbreath K.E. , Fedorov V.B. , Cook J.A. , Jaarola M. ( 2003): "Holarctic phylogeography of the root vole ( Microtus oeconomus): implications for late Quaternary biogeography of high latitudes". Mol. Ecol. Vol 12: 957- 968. [Crossref]
5. Fog K. , Schmedes A. , Rosenørn de Lasson D. ( 1997): Nordens padder og krybdyr. G.E.C. Gad, Copenhagen.
6. Fredga K. , Nawrin J. ( 1977): "Karyotype variability in Sorex araneusL. (Insectivora, Mammalia)". In: Chromosome Today, p.  153- 161. de la Chapelle A. , Sorsa M. , Eds, Elsevier, Amsterdam.
7. Fritz U. , Corti C. , Päckert M. ( 2012): "Mitochondrial DNA sequences suggest unexpected phylogenetic position of Corso-Sardinian grass snakes ( Natrix cetti) and do not support their species status, with notes on phylogeography and subspecies delineation of grass snakes". Org. Divers. Evol. Vol 12: 71- 80. [Crossref]
8. Guicking D. , Lawson R. , Joger U. , Wink M. ( 2006): "Evolution and phylogeny of the genus Natrix(Serpentes: Colubridae)". Biol. J. Linn. Soc. Vol 87: 127- 143. [Crossref]
9. Horn S. , Prost S. , Stiller M. , Makowiecki D. , Kuznetsova T. , Benecke N. , Pucher E. , Hufthammer A.K. , Schouwenburg C. , Shapiro B. , Hofreiter M. ( 2014): "Ancient mitochondrial DNA and the genetic history of Eurasian beaver ( Castor fiber) in Europe". Mol. Ecol. Vol 23: 1717- 1729. [Crossref]
10. Jaarola M. , Tegelström H. ( 1995): "Colonization history of north European field voles ( Microtus agrestis) revealed by mitochondrial DNA". Mol. Ecol. Vol 4: 299- 310. [Crossref]
11. Kabisch K. ( 1999): " Natrix natrix(Linnaeus, 1758) – Ringelnatter". In: Handbuch der Reptilien und Amphibien Europas. Band 3/IIA: Schlangen II, p.  513- 580. Böhme W. , Ed., Aula-Verlag, Wiebelsheim.
12. Kindler C. , Böhme W. , Corti C. , Gvoždík V. , Jablonski D. , Jandzik D. , Metallinou M. , Široký P. , Fritz U. ( 2013): "Mitochondrial phylogeography, contact zones and taxonomy of grass snakes ( Natrix natrix, N. megalocephala)". Zool. Scr. Vol 42: 458- 472. [Crossref]
13. Lanfear R. , Calcott B. , Ho S.Y.W. , Guindon S. ( 2012): " partitionfinder: combined selection of partitioning schemes and substitution models for phylogenetic analyses". Mol. Biol. Evol. Vol 29: 1695- 1701. [Crossref]
14. Marmi J. , López-Giráldez F. , MacDonald D.W. , Calafell F. , Zholnerovskaya E. , Domingo-Roura X. ( 2006): "Mitochondrial DNA reveals a strong phylogeographic structure in the badger across Eurasia". Mol. Ecol. Vol 15: 1007- 1020. [Crossref]
15. Mertens R. ( 1957): "Die Würfelnatter ( Natrix tessellata) der Schlangeninsel". Senck. Biol. Vol 38: 271- 275.
16. Ronquist F. , Teslenko M. , van der Mark P. , Ayres D.L. , Darling A. , Höhna S. , Larget B. , Liu L. , Suchard M.A. , Huelsenbeck J.P. ( 2012): " mrbayes3.2: efficient Bayesian phylogenetic inference and model choice across a large model space". Syst. Biol. Vol 61: 539- 542. [Crossref]
17. Sommer R.S. , Zachos F.E. , Street M. , Jöris O. , Skog A. , Benecke N. ( 2008): "Late Quaternary distribution dynamics and phylogeography of the red deer ( Cervus elaphus) in Europe". Quaternary Sci. Rev. Vol 27: 714- 733. [Crossref]
18. Sommer R.S. , Fahlke J. , Schmölcke U. , Benecke N. , Zachos F.E. ( 2009a): "Quaternary history of the European roe deer ( Capreolus capreolus)". Mammal Rev. Vol 38: 1- 16. [Crossref]
19. Sommer R.S. , Lindqvist C. , Persson A. , Bringsøe H. , Rhodin A.G.J. , Schneeweiß N. , Široký P. , Bachmann L. , Fritz U. ( 2009b): "Unexpected early extinction of the European pond turtle ( Emys orbicularis) in Sweden and climatic impact on its Holocene range". Mol. Ecol. Vol 18: 1252- 1262. [Crossref]
20. Sommer R.S. , Fritz U. , Seppä H. , Liljegren R. ( 2011): "When the pond turtle followed the reindeer: effect of the last extreme global warming event on the timing of faunal change in Northern Europe". Global Change Biol. Vol 17: 2049- 2053. [Crossref]
21. Stamatakis A. ( 2006): "RAxML-VI-HPC: maximum likelihood-based phylogenetic analyses with thousands of taxa and mixed models". Bioinformatics Vol 22: 2688- 2690. [Crossref]
22. Taberlet P. , Swenson J.E. , Sandegren F. , Bjärvall A. ( 1995): "Localization of a contact zone between two highly divergent mitochondrial DNA lineages of the brown bear ( Ursus arctos) in Scandinavia". Conserv. Biol. Vol 9: 1255- 1261. [Crossref]
23. Taberlet P. , Fumagalli L. , Wust-Saucy A.-G. , Cossons J.-F. ( 1998): "Comparative phylogeography and post-glacial colonization routes in Europe". Mol. Ecol. Vol 7: 453- 464. [Crossref]
24. Tegelström H. ( 1987): "Transfer of mitochondrial DNA from the northern red-backed vole ( Clethrionomys rutilus) to the bank vole ( C. glareolus)". J. Mol. Evol. Vol 24: 218- 227. [Crossref]
25. Ursenbacher S. , Carlsson M. , Helfer V. , Tegelström H. , Fumagalli L. ( 2006): "Phylogeography and Pleistocene refugia of the adder ( Vipera berus) as inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequence data". Mol. Ecol. Vol 15: 3425- 3437. [Crossref]
26. Wieseke N. ( 2007): Untersuchungen zur spät- und postglazialen Verbreitungsgeschichte der Reptilien, insbesondere der Sumpfschildkröte ( Emys orbicularis), in Europa. Diploma thesis, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Christian Albrechts University, Kiel.

Article metrics loading...



Can't access your account?
  • Tools

  • Add to Favorites
  • Printable version
  • Email this page
  • Subscribe to ToC alert
  • Get permissions
  • Recommend to your library

    You must fill out fields marked with: *

    Librarian details
    Your details
    Why are you recommending this title?
    Select reason:
    Amphibia-Reptilia — Recommend this title to your library
  • Export citations
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation