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The breeding biologies of three species of treefrogs with hyperextended vocal repertoires ( Gracixalus; Anura: Rhacophoridae)

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Gracixalus gracilipes, G. quangi, and G. supercornutusare small, morphologically and molecularly similar treefrogs with green blood from Vietnam, Laos and southern China. The breeding biologies, eggs, embryos and larvae of these three species are poorly known, and the male advertisement call of only G. quangiis known; this species has a hyperextended vocal repertoire. We provide new information on the breeding habitats, eggs, embryos and tadpoles of these three species and describe the calls of G. gracilipesand G. supercornutus. All three species deposit egg clumps on leaves overhanging shallow pools and puddles in forests. Like G. quangi, the calls of G. gracilipesand G. supercornutusare non-stereotypical, with individual calls highly variable in structure, duration, amplitude and frequency. Both calls are frequency modulated and have a dominant frequency of 4.1-4.7 kHz and many harmonics. The functional significance of these variations is unknown, and it is not known how common hyperextended call repertoires are within the genus.

Affiliations: 1: 1Australian Museum Research Institute, Australian Museum, 6 College St, Sydney NSW 2010, Australia; 2: 2Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet, Nghia Do, Tu Liem, Hanoi, Vietnam; 3: 3University of Science – Ho Chi Minh City, Faculty of Biology, 227 Nguyen Van Cu, District 5, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam; 4: 4Vietnam National Museum of Nature, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet, Hanoi, Vietnam; 5: 5Department of Biological Sciences, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762, USA


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