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Open Access Trade in wild anurans vectors the urodelan pathogen Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans into Europe

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Trade in wild anurans vectors the urodelan pathogen Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans into Europe

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Affiliations: 1: 1Vietnam National Museum of Nature, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Road, Hanoi, Vietnam ; 2: 2Graduate University of Science and Technology, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet, Cau Giay, Hanoi, Vietnam ; 3: 3AG Zoologischer Garten Köln, Riehler Strasse 173, D-50735 Cologne, Germany ; 4: 4Institute of Zoology, University of Cologne, Zülpicher Straße 47b, D-50674 Cologne, Germany ; 5: 5Department of Pathology, Bacteriology and Avian Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Salisburylaan 133, B-9820 Merelbeke, Belgium

*Corresponding author; e-mail:

Pathogen pollution has caused dramatic losses of amphibian diversity on a global scale. The recently emerged chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) has been hypothesized to have its origin in Asian urodelan populations, from which it may have been introduced to Europe through the trade in live urodelans. We here show that Bsal is present on wild small-webbed fire-bellied toads (Bombina microdeladigitora) from Vietnam and on representatives of the same species that have recently been imported in Germany. This finding suggests that the installment of measures to mitigate the Bsal threat through the amphibian trade should not be limited to urodeles, but should equally take anurans into account.


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