Cookies Policy

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

The distributions of the six species constituting the smooth newt species complex (Lissotriton vulgaris sensu lato and L. montandoni) – an addition to the New Atlas of Amphibians and Reptiles of Europe

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

Access this article

+ Tax (if applicable)
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

The ‘smooth newt’, the taxon traditionally referred to as Lissotriton vulgaris, consists of multiple morphologically distinct taxa. Given the uncertainty concerning the validity and rank of these taxa, L. vulgaris sensu lato has often been treated as a single, polytypic species. A recent study, driven by genetic data, proposed to recognize five species, L. graecus, L. kosswigi, L. lantzi, L. schmidtleri and a more restricted L. vulgaris. The Carpathian newt L. montandoni was confirmed to be a closely related sister species. We propose to refer to this collective of six Lissotriton species as the smooth newt or Lissotriton vulgaris species complex. Guided by comprehensive genomic data from throughout the range of the smooth newt species complex we 1) delineate the distribution ranges, 2) provide a distribution database, and 3) produce distribution maps according to the format of the New Atlas of Amphibians and Reptiles of Europe, for the six constituent species. This allows us to 4) highlight regions where more research is needed to determine the position of contact zones.

Affiliations: 1: 1Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA ; 2: 2Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, S10 2TN Sheffield, UK ; 3: 3Naturalis Biodiversity Center, P.O. Box 9517, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands ; 4: 4Department of Ecological and Biological Science, Tuscia University, 01100 Viterbo, Italy ; 5: 5Department of Evolutionary Biology, Institute for Biological Research “Siniša Stanković”, University of Belgrade, Bul. Despota Stefana 142, 11060 Belgrade, Serbia ; 6: 6Laboratory of Fish and Amphibian Ethology, Behavioural Biology Unit, Freshwater and OCeanic science Unit of reSearch (FOCUS), University of Liège, Liège, Belgium ; 7: 7Institute of Environmental Sciences, Jagiellonian University, ul. Gronostajowa 7, 30-387 Kraków, Poland ; 8: 8Institut de Biologie Intégrative et des Systèmes, Département de Biologie, PROTEO, Pavillon Charles-Eugène-Marchand, Université Laval, Québec, QC, Canada ; 9: 9Department of Zoology, Comenius University in Bratislava Mlynská dolina, Ilkovičova 6, 842 15 Bratislava, Slovakia ; 10: 10Obozowa 46, 30-060 Kraków, Poland ; 11: 11Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Research, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 2 Gagarin Street, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria ; 12: 12Department of Biology, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Adnan Menderes University, 09010 Aydın, Turkey ; 13: 13Department of Comparative Anatomy, Institute of Zoology and Biomedical Research, Jagiellonian University, ul. Gronostajowa 9, 30-387 Kraków, Poland ; 14: 14National Museum of Natural History, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1 Tsar Osvoboditel Blvd, 1000 Sofia, Bulgaria ; 15: 15Department of Health, Life and Environmental Sciences, University of L’Aquila, Via Vetoio, 67100 Coppito, L’Aquila, Italy ; 16: 16CIBIO-InBIO, Centro de Investigação em Biodiversidade e Recursos Genéticos, Universidade do Porto, Campus Agrário de Vairão, 4485-661 Vairão, Portugal ; 17: 17Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Earth System Modeling, and Department of Earth System Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China ; 18: 18Center for Tropical Research, Institute of the Environment and Sustainability, University of California, Los Angeles, 621 Charles E. Yong Drive South, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA ; 19: 19CICGE – Centro de Investigação em Ciências Geo-Espaciais, Observatório Astronómico Prof. Manuel de Barros, Alameda do Monte da Virgem, 4430-146 Vila Nova de Gaia, Portugal ; 20: 20Department of Biological Applications and Technology, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina, Greece

*Corresponding author; e-mail:
Loading data from figshare Loading data from figshare

Full text loading...


Data & Media loading...

1. Alexander D.H., Novembre J., Lange K. (2009): "Fast model-based estimation of ancestry in unrelated individuals". Genome Res. Vol 19: 1655-1664. [Crossref]
2. Arntzen J.W., Kuzmin S., Beebee T., Papenfuss T., Sparreboom M., Ugurtas I.H., Anderson S., Anthony B., Andreone F., Tarkhnishvili D., Ishchenko V., Ananjeva N., Orlov N., Tuniyev B. (2009): The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2009: e.T59481A11932252. DOI:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2009.RLTS.T59481A11932252.en. Downloaded on 17 May 2017.
3. Babik W., Szymura J.M., Rafiński J. (2003): "Nuclear markers, mitochondrial DNA and male secondary sexual traits variation in a newt hybrid zone (Triturus vulgaris × T. montandoni)". Mol. Ecol. Vol 12: 1913-1930. [Crossref]
4. Babik W., Branicki W., Crnobrnja-Isailovic J., Cogalniceanu D., Sas I., Olgun K., Poyarkov N.A., Garcia-Paris M., Arntzen J.W. (2005): "Phylogeography of two European newt species – discordance between mtDNA and morphology". Mol. Ecol. Vol 14: 2475-2491. [Crossref]
5. Boulenger G.A. (1880): "Sur une forme intéressante de Triton provenant de Moldavie et observations sur le genre Pelonectes Lataste". Bull. Soc. Zool. Fr. Vol 5: 37-40.
6. Denoël M., Ficetola G.F., Ćirović R., Radović D., Džukić G., Kalezić M.L., Vukov T.D. (2009): "A multi-scale approach to facultative paedomorphosis of European newts (Salamandridae) in the Montenegrin karst: distribution pattern, environmental variables, and conservation". Biol. Conserv. Vol 142: 509-517. [Crossref]
7. Dubois A., Raffaëlli J. (2009): "A new ergotaxonomy of the family Salamandridae Goldfuss, 1820 (Amphibia, Urodela)". Alytes Vol 26: 1-85.
8. Freytag G.E. (1955): "Ein neurer Teichmolch aus der Türkei". Zool. Anz. Vol 154: 195-200.
9. Frost D.R. (2013): Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 5.6 (9 January 2013). Electronic Database accessible at American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA.
10. Kalezić M.L. (1984): "Evolutionary divergences in the smooth newt (Triturus vulgaris) (Urodela: Salamandridae): electrophoretic evidence". Amphib.-Reptil. Vol 5: 221-229. [Crossref]
11. Kalezić M.L., Tucić N. (1984): "Genic diversity and population genetic structure of Triturus vulgaris (Urodela, Salamandridae)". Evolution Vol 38: 389-401.
12. Kalezić M.L., Džukić G., Crnobrnja Isailović J., Tvrtković N. (1987): "On the Triturus vulgaris schreiberi problem: electrophoretic data". Alytes Vol 6: 18-22.
13. Krizmanić I., Mesaroš G., Džukić G., Kalezić M.L. (1997): "Morphology of the smooth newt (Triturus vulgaris) in former Yugoslavia: taxonomical implications and distribution patterns". Acta Zool. Acad. Sci. Hung. Vol 43: 345-357.
14. Linnaeus C. (1758): Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, Secundum Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species, cum Characteribus, Differentiis, Synonymis, Locis. 10th Edition, Volume 1. L. Salvii, Stockholm, Sweden.
15. Nadachowska K., Babik W. (2009): "Divergence in the face of gene flow: the case of two newts (Amphibia: Salamandridae)". Mol. Biol. Evol. Vol 26: 829-841. [Crossref]
16. Nadachowska-Brzyska K., Zieliński P., Radwan J., Babik W. (2012): "Interspecific hybridization increases MHC class II diversity in two sister species of newts". Mol. Ecol. Vol 21: 887-906. [Crossref]
17. Niedzicka M., Fijarczyk A., Dudek K., Stuglik M., Babik W. (2016): "Molecular inversion probes for targeted resequencing in non-model organisms". Sci. Rep. Vol 6: 24051. [Crossref]
18. Pabijan M., Zieliński P., Dudek K., Chloupek M., Sotiropoulos K., Liana M., Babik W. (2015): "The dissection of a Pleistocene refugium: phylogeography of the smooth newt, Lissotriton vulgaris, in the Balkans". J. Biogeogr. Vol 42: 671-683. [Crossref]
19. Pabijan M., Zieliński P., Dudek K., Stuglik M., Babik W. (2017): "Isolation and gene flow in a speciation continuum in newts". Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. Vol 116: 1-12. [Crossref]
20. Rafiński J., Cogălniceanu D., Babik W. (2001): "Genetic differentiation of the two subspecies of the smooth newt inhabiting Romania, Triturus vulgaris vulgaris and T. v. ampelensis (Urodela, Salamandridae) as revealed by enzyme electrophoresis". Folia Biol. (Kraków) Vol 49: 239-245.
21. Raxworthy C. (1988): "A description and study of a new dwarf sub-species of smooth newt, Triturus vulgaris, from western Anatolia, Turkey". J. Zool. Lond. Vol 215: 753-763. [Crossref]
22. Raxworthy C. (1990): "A review of the smooth newt (Triturus vulgaris) subspecies, including and identification key". Herpetol. J. Vol 1: 481-492.
23. Schmidtler J.F., Franzen M. (2004): "Triturus vulgaris (Linnaeus, 1758) – teichmolch". In: Handbuch der Reptilien und Amphibien Europas. Schwanzlurche IIB, p.  847-967. Grossenbacher K., Thiesmeier B., Eds, Aula-Verlag, Wiesbaden.
24. Schmidtler J.J., Schmidtler J.F. (1983): "Verbreitung, Ökologie und unterartliche Gliederung von Triturus vulgaris in der adriatischen Küstengebieten (Amphibia, Salamandridae)". Spixiana Vol 6: 229-249.
25. Sillero N., Campos J., Bonardi A., Corti C., Creemers R., Crochet P.-A., Crnobrnja Isailović J., Denoël M., Ficetola G.F., Gonçalves J., Kuzmin S., Lymberakis P., de Pous P., Rodríguez A., Sindaco R., Speybroeck J., Toxopeus B., Vieites D.R., Vences M. (2014a): "Updated distribution and biogeography of amphibians and reptiles of Europe". Amphib.-Reptil. Vol 35: 1-31. [Crossref]
26. Sillero N., Oliveira M.A., Sousa P., Sousa F., Gonçalves-Seco L. (2014b): "Distributed database system of the New Atlas of Amphibians and Reptiles in Europe: the NA2RE project". Amphib.-Reptil. Vol 35: 33-39. [Crossref]
27. Skorinov D., Litvinchuk S., Borkin L., Rosanov J. (2008): "Genetic differentiation, genome size and morphological variation in newts of the Lissotriton vulgaris group". In: Voprosy Gerpetologii, Proceedings of the Third Conference of Herpetological Society of AM Nikolsky, St. Petersburg, p.  363-371.
28. Skorinov D., Litvinchuk S., Borkin L., Rosanov J. (2011): "Systematics of newts of the Lissotriton vulgaris complex (Salamandridae)". In: Voprosy Gerpetologii, Proceedings of the Fourth Conference of Herpetological Society of AM Nikolsky, St. Petersburg.
29. Skorinov D.V., Doronin I.V., Kidov A.A., Tuniev B.S., Litvinchuk S.N. (2014): "Distribution and conservation status of the Caucasian newt, Lissotriton lantzi (Wolterstorff, 1914)". Russ. J. Herpetol. Vol 21: 251-268.
30. Speybroeck J., Beukema W., Crochet P.-A. (2010): "A tentative species list of the European herpetofauna (Amphibia and Reptilia) – an update". Zootaxa Vol 2492: 1-27.
31. Tuniyev B. (1999): "A systematic list of amphibians from the alpides of the Caucasus and middle Asia, with comments on their taxonomy". Adv. Amphib. Res. Former Soviet Union Vol 3: 43-75.
32. Wielstra B., Sillero N., Vörös J., Arntzen J.W. (2014): "The distribution of the crested and marbled newt species (Amphibia: Salamandridae: Triturus) – an addition to the New Atlas of Amphibians and Reptiles of Europe". Amphib.-Reptil. Vol 35: 376-381. [Crossref]
33. Wielstra B., Bozkurt E., Olgun K. (2015): "The distribution and taxonomy of Lissotriton newts (Amphibia, Salamandridae) in Turkey". ZooKeys Vol 484: 11-23. [Crossref]
34. Wiens J.J., Sparreboom M., Arntzen J.W. (2011): "Crest evolution in newts: implications for reconstruction methods, sexual selection, phenotypic plasticity and the origin of novelties". J. Evol. Biol. Vol 24: 2073-2086. [Crossref]
35. Wolterstorff W. (1906): "Über Triton vulgaris L. subsp. graeca Wolt. n. subsp". Zool. Anz. Vol 29: 137-139.
36. Wolterstorff W. (1914): "Zwei neue Tritonformen der paläarktischen Region". Abhandlungen und Berichte aus dem Museum für Natur- und Heimatkunde zu Magdeburg Vol 2: 371-381.
37. Zavadil V., Pialek J., Dandova R. (2003): "Triturus montandoni (Boulenger, 1880) – Karpetenmolch". In: Handbuch der Reptilien und Amphibien Europas. Schwanzlurche IIA, p.  657-706. Grossenbacher K., Thiesmeier B., Eds, Aula-Verlag, Wiebelsheim.
38. Zieliński P., Nadachowska-Brzyska K., Wielstra B., Szkotak R., Covaciu-Marcov S., Cogălniceanu D., Babik W. (2013): "No evidence for nuclear introgression despite complete mtDNA replacement in the Carpathian newt (Lissotriton montandoni)". Mol. Ecol. Vol 22: 1884-1903. [Crossref]
39. Zieliński P., Dudek K., Stuglik M.T., Liana M., Babik W. (2014a): "Single nucleotide polymorphisms reveal genetic structuring of the Carpathian newt and provide evidence of interspecific gene flow in the nuclear genome". PLoS ONE Vol 9: e97431.
40. Zieliński P., Stuglik M.T., Dudek K., Konczal M., Babik W. (2014b): "Development, validation and high throughput analysis of sequence markers in non-model species". Mol. Ecol. Resour. Vol 14: 352-360. [Crossref]
41. Zieliński P., Nadachowska-Brzyska K., Dudek K., Babik W. (2016): "Divergence history of the Carpathian and smooth newts modelled in space and time". Mol. Ecol. Vol 25: 3912-3928. [Crossref]

Article metrics loading...



Can't access your account?
  • Tools

  • Add to Favorites
  • Printable version
  • Email this page
  • Subscribe to ToC alert
  • Get permissions
  • Recommend to your library

    You must fill out fields marked with: *

    Librarian details
    Your details
    Why are you recommending this title?
    Select reason:
    Amphibia-Reptilia — Recommend this title to your library
  • Export citations
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation