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A review of the helminths co-introduced with Trachemys scripta elegans – a threat to European native turtle health

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In the 20th century large numbers of exotic turtles Trachemys scripta elegans have been imported into Europe as pets and this has led to frequent introductions into many freshwater ecosystems. Nowadays, established populations of red-eared slider, coexist and compete with the native in Europe species of turtles in the wild. Invasive turtles are a threat to indigenous species because of carriage of many parasites, which are often considered to cause disease emergence and produce high mortality in native hosts. Helminths are the most prominent group introduced with T. s. elegans and due to their host-switching ability have become important co-invaders, a potential threat to indigenous turtle health. The aim of this review was to assess the risks of the transfer of helminths co-introduced with T. s. elegans to native species of European turtles.

Affiliations: 1: 1Department of Parasitology and Invasive Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Poland ; 2: 2Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Al Muthanna University, Samawa Muthanna, Iraq ; 3: 3Department of Animal and Environmental Hygiene, Faculty of Animal Breeding and Biology, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Poland

*Corresponding author; e-mail:

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