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The Amazonian toad Rhaebo guttatus is able to voluntarily squirt poison from the paratoid macroglands

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Amphibian defence mechanisms commonly rely on cutaneous toxins produced in either isolated or clustered glands, such as toad parotoid macroglands. In contrast to the passive mechanism of poison liberation in other amphibians, we discovered that the Amazonian toad Rhaebo guttatus is unique because it can voluntarily squirt jets of poison from its parotoids.

Affiliations: 1: Instituto Butantan, Av. Vital Brasil 1500, CEP 05504900, São Paulo, Brazil;, Email:; 2: Instituto Butantan, Av. Vital Brasil 1500, CEP 05504900, São Paulo, Brazil; 3: Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, Santo André, Brazil; 4: Museu de Zoologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, Brazil; 5: Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil


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