Cookies Policy
X

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

Mating system and population analysis of the broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris) using microsatellite markers

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

Access this article

+ Tax (if applicable)
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

The knowledge about reproductive strategies of a species contributes to their conservation. Multiple paternity is a reproductive behavior increasing effective population size, which could increase genetic diversity particularly in populations submitted to bottlenecks events. In Argentina, wild populations of Caiman latirostris are subject of a management plan devoted to their preservation and sustainable utilization based on its commercial interest. This program started in response to the evident numeric reduction of the populations, as a consequence of hunting pressure and habitat modification; it had a remarkable success in population recovery allowing the commercial use of C. latirostris. Data on reproductive behavior of C. latirostris are limited because mating occurs in the water and the information about their genetic diversity is scarce too. Our specific aims were to study the mating system and population genetic structure applying microsatellite markers in twelve C. latirostris families. The obtained results showed highly significant difference among populations and a lack of correspondence between geographical distance and genetic differentiation suggesting that populations of C. latirostris represent unstable metapopulations. In the paternity analysis was detected more than one father in two nests, which could be explained by capacity of storage sperm, proposed in females of a related species. The behavior of multipaternity could contribute to maintain viable populations of C. latirostris, since the maintenance of genetic variability within populations could help increase their capacity to respond to selective pressure. Further studies employing genetic and behavioral framework are needed to better understand the reproductive biology of C. latirostris.

Affiliations: 1: 4Carrera del Investigador Científico (CIC), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Argentina ; 2: 3Proyecto Yacaré-Laboratorio de Zoología Aplicada: Anexo Vertebrados (FHUC-UNL/MASPyMA), A. del Valle 8700, Santa Fe 3000, Argentina ; 3: 1Departamento de Ciencias Naturales, Facultad de Humanidades y Ciencias, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Ciudad Universitaria, Santa Fe 3000, Argentina ; 4: 2Departamento Ecología, Genética y Evolución, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Buenos Aires 1428, Argentina

*Corresponding author; e-mail: pamavet@fhuc.unl.edu.ar
Loading

Full text loading...

/content/journals/10.1163/156853812x624423
Loading

Data & Media loading...

1. Adams E.M. , Jones A.G. , Arnold S.J. (2005): "Multiple paternity in a natural population of a salamander with long-term sperm storage". Mol. Ecol. Vol 14: 1803- 1810. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-294X.2005.02539.x
2. Adams S.E. , Smith M.H. , Baccus R. (1980): "Biochemical variation in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis)". Herpetologica Vol 36: 289- 296.
3. Amavet P.S. , Rosso E.L. , Markariani R.M. , Larriera A. (2007): "Analysis of the population structure of Broad-Snouted Caiman (Caiman latirostris) in Santa Fe, Argentina, using the RAPD technique". J. Herpetol. Vol 41: 285- 295. http://dx.doi.org/10.1670/0022-1511(2007)41[294:AOTPSO]2.0.CO;2
4. Amavet P. , Rosso E. , Markariani R. , Piña C.I. (2008): "Microsatellite DNA markers applied to detection of multiple paternity in Caiman latirostris in Santa Fe, Argentina". J. Exp. Zool. Vol 309A: 637- 642. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jez.496
5. Amavet P. , Vilardi J.C. , Rosso E. , Saidman B. (2009): "Genetic and morphometric variability in Caiman latirostris (broad-snouted caiman), Reptilia, Alligatoridae". J. Exp. Zool. Vol 311A: 258- 269. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jez.523
6. Bassam B.J. , Caetano-Anolles G. , Gresshoff P.M. (1991): "Fast and sensitive silver staining of DNA in polyacrylamide gels". Anal. Biochem. Vol 196: 80- 83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0003-2697(91)90120-I
7. Berry O.F. (2006): "Inbreeding and promiscuity in the endangered grand skink". Cons. Genet. Vol 7: 427- 437. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10592-005-9054-0
8. Bruford M.W. , Wayne R.K. (1993): "Microsatellites and their application to population genetic studies". Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev. Vol 3: 939- 943. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0959-437X(93)90017-J
9. Davenport M. (1995): "Evidence of possible sperm storage in the Caiman, Paleosuchus palpebrosus ". Herp. Rev. Vol 26: 14- 15.
10. Davis L.M. , Glenn T.C. , Elsey R.M. , Brisbin I.L. Jr. , Rhodes W.E. , Dessauer H.C. , Sawyer R.H. (2000): "Genetic structure of six populations of American alligators: a microsatellite analysis". In: Crocodilian Biology Evolution, p.  38- 50. Grigg G. , Seebacher F. , Franklin C.E. , Eds, Chipping Norton, Surrey Beatty and Sons.
11. Davis L.M. , Glenn T.C. , Elsey R.M. , Dessauer H.C. , Sawyer R.H. (2001): "Multiple paternity and mating patterns in the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis ". Mol. Ecol. Vol 10: 1011- 1024. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-294X.2001.01241.x
12. Davis L.M. , Glenn T.C. , Strickland D.C. , Guillette L.J. Jr. , Elsey R.M. , Rhodes W.E. , Dessauer H.C. , Sawyer R.H. (2002): "Microsatellite DNA analysis support an east-west phylogeographic split of American alligator populations". J. Exp. Zool. Vol 294: 352- 372. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jez.10189
13. de Oliveira D.P. , Farias I.P. , Marioni B. , Campos Z. , Hrbek T. (2010): "Microsatellite markers for mating system and population analyses of the spectacled caiman Caiman crocodilus (Linnaeus 1758)". Conserv. Genet. Resour. Vol 2: 181- 184. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12686-010-9221-6
14. de Thoisy B. , Hrbek T. , Farias I.P. , Vasconcelos W.R. , Lavergne A. (2006): "Genetic structure, population dynamics, and conservation of Black caiman (Melanosuchus niger)". Biol. Conserv. Vol 133: 474- 482. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2006.07.009
15. Densmore L.D. III , White P.S. (1991): "The systematic and evolution of the Crocodylia as suggested by restriction endonuclease analysis of mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal DNA". Copeia Vol 3: 602- 615. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1446388
16. Dever J.A. , Strauss R.E. , Rainwater T.R. , McMurry S.T. , Densmore L.R. (2002): "Genetic diversity, population subdivision, and gene flow in Morelet’s Crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii) from Belize, Central America". Copeia Vol 2002: 1078- 1091. http://dx.doi.org/10.1643/0045-8511(2002)002[1078:GDPSAG]2.0.CO;2
17. Dray S. , Dufour A.B. (2007): "The ade4 package: implementing the duality diagram for ecologists". J. Stat. Soft. Vol 22: 1- 20. http://dx.doi.org/10.18637/jss.v022.i04
18. Dunn P.O. , Lifjeld J.T. , Whittingham L.A. (2009): "Multiple paternity and offspring quality in tree swallows". Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. Vol 63: 911- 922. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00265-009-0734-5
19. Ellegren H. (2004): "Microsatellites: simple sequences with complex evolution". Nat. Rev. Genet. Vol 5: 435- 445. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrg1348
20. Farias I.P. , Da Silveira R. , de Thoisy B. , Monjeló L.A. , Thonrbjarnarson J. , Hrbek T. (2004): "Genetic diversity and population structure of Amazonian crocodilians". Animal Conserv. Vol 7: 265- 272. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S136794300400143X
21. Fitzsimmons N.N. , Tanksley S. , Forstner M.R.J. , Louis E.E. , Daglish R. , Gratten J. , Davis S. (2000): "Microsatellite markers for Crocodylus: new genetic tools for population genetics, mating system studies and forensics". In: Crocodilian Biology Evolution, p.  51- 57. Grigg G. , Seebacher F. , Franklin C.E. , Eds, Chipping Norton, Surrey Beatty and Sons.
22. Fitzsimmons N. , Buchan J.C. , Lam P.V. , Polet G. , Hung T.T. , Thang N.Q. , Gratten J. (2002): "Identification of purebred Crocodylus siamensis for reintroduction in Vietnam". J. Exp. Zool. Vol 294: 373- 381. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jez.10201
23. Flint N.S. , van der Bank F.H. , Grobler J.P. (2000): "A lack of genetic variation in commercially bred Nile Crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) in the North-West Province of South Africa". Water SA Vol 26: 105- 110.
24. Forstner M.R.J. , Fortsner J.M.K. (2002): "La utilidad del ADN en la conservación de los Crocodylia". In: Conservação e Manejo de Jacarés e Cocodrilos da America Latina – La Conservación y el Manejo de Caimanes y Cocodrilos de América Latina, Vol Vol. II, p. 99- 117. Larriera A. , Verdade L. , Eds, Piracicaba, CN Editoria.
25. Frankham R. (2005): "Genetics and extinction". Biol. Conserv. Vol 126: 131- 140. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2005.05.002
26. Gartside D.F. , Dessauer H.C. , Joanen T. (1976): "Genic homozygosity in an ancient reptile (Alligator mississippiensis)". Biochem. Genet. Vol 15: 655- 663. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00484096
27. Gist D.H. , Bagwill A. , Lance V. , Sever D.M. , Elsey R.M. (2008): "Sperm storage in the oviduct of the American alligator". J. Exp. Zool. Vol 309A: 581- 587. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jez.434
28. Glenn T.C. , Dessauer H.C. , Braun M.J. (1998): "Characterization of microsatellite DNA loci in American Alligators". Copeia Vol 1998: 591- 601. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1447789
29. Glenn T.C. , Staton J.L. , Vu A.T. , Davis L.M. , Alvarado Bremer J.R. , Rhodes W.E. , Brisbin L. Jr. , Sawyer R.H. (2002): "Low mitochondrial DNA variation among American alligators and a novel non-coding region in crocodilians". J. Exp. Zool. Vol 294: 312- 324. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jez.10206
30. Goodman S.J. (1997): " R ST Calc: a collection of computer programs for calculating estimates of genetic differentiation from microsatellite data and determining their significance". Mol. Ecol. Vol 6: 881- 885. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-294X.1997.tb00143.x
31. Gottelli D. , Wang J.L. , Bashir S. , Durant S.M. (2007): "Genetic analysis reveals promiscuity among female cheetahs". Proc. Roy. Soc Lond. Ser. B: Biol. Sci. Vol 274: 1993- 2001. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2007.0502
32. Hrbek T. , Vasconcelos W.R. , Rebelo G. , Farias I.P. (2008): "Phylogenetic relationships of South American Alligatorids and the Caiman of Madeira River". J. Exp. Zool. Vol 309A: 588- 599. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jez.430
33. Hu Y. , Wu X.B. (2010): "Multiple paternity in Chinese alligator (Alligator sinensis) clutches during a reproductive season at Xuanzhou Nature Reserve". Amph. Rept. Vol 31: 419- 424. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/156853810791769446
34. Isberg S.R. , Chen Y. , Barker S.G. , Moran C. (2004): "Analysis of microsatellites and parentage testing in saltwater crocodiles". J. Hered. Vol 95: 445- 449. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jhered/esh067
35. Jensen M.P. , Abreu-Grobois F.A. , Frydenberg J. , Loeschcke V. (2006): "Microsatellites provide insight into contrasting mating patterns in arribada vs. non-arribada olive ridley sea turtle rookeries". Mol. Ecol. Vol 15: 2567- 2575. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-294X.2006.02951.x
36. Jones A.G. (2005): "GERUD 2.0: A computer program for the reconstruction of parental genotypes from half-sib progeny arrays with known or unknown parents". Mol. Ecol. Notes Vol 5: 708- 711. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-8286.2005.01029.x
37. Jones A.G. , Ardren W.R. (2003): "Methods of parentage analysis in natural populations". Mol. Ecol. Vol 12: 2511- 2523. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-294X.2003.01928.x
38. Jurgens A. , Kruger J. , van der Bank F.H. (1994): "Allozyme variation in the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) from Southern Africa". In: Crocodiles. Proceedings of the 12th Working Meeting of the Crocodile Specialist Group, p.  72- 76. Gland, IUCN – The World Conservation Union.
39. Kitchen A.M. , Gese E.M. , Waits L.P. , Karki S.M. , Schauster E.R. (2006): "Multiple breeding strategies in the swift fox, Vulpes velox ". Animal Behav. Vol 71: 1029- 1038. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2005.06.015
40. Lande R. , Shannon S. (1996): "The role of genetic variation in adaptation and population persistence in a changing environment". Evolution Vol 50: 434- 437. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2410812
41. Lang J.W. (1989): "Social behavior". In: Crocodiles and Alligators, p.  102- 117. Ross C.A. , Ed., New York, Facts on File Inc.
42. Larriera A. (1992): "La conservación y el manejo de Caiman latirostris en la Argentina". In: Anais do II Workshop sobre Conservaçao e Manejo do Jacaré-de-Papo-Amarelo (Caiman latirostris), p.  8- 17. Verdade L.M. , Lavorenti A. , Eds, Piracicaba, CIZBAS/ESALQ, Universidade de Sao Paulo.
43. Larriera A. (1998): "The Caiman latirostris ranching program in Santa Fe, Argentina: The first commercial rearing 1998". In:  Crocodiles. Proceedings of the 14th Working Meeting of the Crocodile Specialist Group, p.  379- 385. Gland, IUCN – The World Conservation Union.
44. Larriera A. (2002): " Caiman latirostris (Broad-snouted Caiman). Communal nesting". Herpetol. Rev. Vol 33: 202.
45. Larriera A. , Imhof A. , Siroski P. (2008): "Estado actual de los programas de conservación y manejo del género Caiman en Argentina". In: Contribución al conocimiento del Género Caiman de Suramérica, p. 143- 179. Castroviejo J. , Ayarzagüena J. , Velasco A. , Eds, Madrid, Publicaciones Asociación Amigos de Doña Ana.
46. Lawson R. , Kofron C.P. , Dessauer H.C. (1989): "Allozyme variation in a natural population of the Nile Crocodile". Amer. Zool. Vol 29: 863- 871. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/icb/29.3.863
47. Leisler B. , Wink M. (2000): "Frequencies of multiple paternity in three Acrocephalus species (Aves Sylviidae) with different mating systems (A. palustris, A. arundinaceus, A. paludicola)". Ethol. Ecol. Evol. Vol 12: 237- 249. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08927014.2000.9522798
48. Longmire J.L. , Lewis A.K. , Brown N.C. , Buckingham J.M. , Clark L.M. , Jones M.D. , Meincke L.J. , Meyne J. , Ratliff R.L. , Ray F.A. , Wagner R.P. , Moyzis R.K. (1988): "Isolation and molecular characterization of a highly polymorphic centromic tandem repeat in the family Falconidae". Genomics Vol 2: 14- 24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0888-7543(88)90104-8
49. Madsen T. , Ujvari B. , Olsson M. , Shine R. (2005): "Paternal alleles enhance female reproductive success in tropical pythons". Mol. Ecol. Vol 14: 1783- 1787. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-294X.2005.02505.x
50. Marshall T.C. , Slate J. , Kruuk L. , Pemberton J.M. (1998): "Statistical confidence for likelihood-based paternity inference in natural populations". Mol. Ecol. Vol 7: 639- 655. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-294x.1998.00374.x
51. McVay J.D. , Rodriguez D. , Rainwater T.R. , Dever J.A. , Platt S.G. , McMurry S.T. , Forstner M.R.J. , Densmore L.D. (2008): "Evidence of multiple paternity in Morelet’s Crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii) in Belize, CA, inferred from microsatellite markers". J. Exp. Zool. Vol 309A: 643- 648. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jez.500
52. Menzies R.A. , Kushlan J. , Dessauer H.C. (1979): "Low degree of genetic variability in the American alligator". Isozyme Bull. Vol 12: 61.
53. Muniz F.L. , Da Silveira R. , Campos Z. , Magnusson W.E. , Hrbek T. , Farias I.P. (2011): "Multiple paternity in the Black Caiman (Melanosuchus niger) population in the Anavilhanas National Park, Brazilian Amazonia". Amph. Rept. Vol 32: 428- 434. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/017353711X587741
54. Murray M.G. , Thompson W.F. (1980): "Rapid isolation of high molecular weight plant DNA". Nuc. Ac. Res. Vol 8: 4321- 4325. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/8.19.4321
55. Myers E.M. , Zamudio K.R. (2004): "Multiple paternity in an aggregate breeding amphibian: the effect of reproductive skew on estimates of male reproductive success". Mol. Ecol. Vol 13: 1951- 1963. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-294X.2004.02208.x
56. Porras Murillo L.P. , Bolaños J.R. , Barr B.R. (2008): "Variación genética y flujo de genes entre poblaciones de Crocodylus acutus (Crocodylia: Crocodylidae) en tres ríos del Pacífico Central, Costa Rica". Rev. Biol. Trop. Vol 56: 1471- 1480.
57. Queller D.C. , Strassmann J.E. , Hughes C.R. (1993): "Microsatellites and kinship". Trends Ecol. Evol. Vol 8: 285- 288. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0169-5347(93)90256-O
58. R Development Core Team (2011): R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. Vienna, R Foundation for Statistical Computing. http://www.R-project.org/. Accessed 20 June 2011.
59. Ray D.A. , White P.S. , Duong H.V. , Cullen T. , Densmore L.D. (2000): "High levels of genetic variability in west African dwarf crocodiles Osteolaemus tetraspis tetraspis ". In: Crocodilian Biology and Evolution, p.  58- 63. Grigg G. , Seebacher F. , Franklin C.E. , Eds, Chipping Norton, Surrey Beatty and Sons.
60. Sugg D.W. , Chesser R.K. (1994): "Effective population size with multiple paternity". Genetics Vol 137: 1147- 1155.
61. Tautz D.C. , Schlötterer C. (1994): "Simple sequences". Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev. Vol 4: 832- 837. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0959-437X(94)90067-1
62. Thorbjarnarson J. (1999): "Crocodile tears and skins: International trade, economic constraints and limits to the sustainable use of crocodilians". Cons. Biol. Vol 13: 465- 470. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1739.1999.00011.x
63. Tourn S. , Imhof A. , Costa A.L. , von Finck M.C. , Larriera A. (1993): "Colecta de sangre y procesamiento de muestras en Caiman latirostris (Informe de avance)". In: Memorias del IV Workshop sobre Conservación y Manejo del yacaré overo (Caiman latirostris), p. 25- 30. Larriera A. , Imhof A. , von Finck M.C. , Costa A.L. , Tourn S.C. , Eds, Santa Fe, Fundación Banco Bica.
64. Verdade L.M. , Zucoloto R.B. , Coutinho L.L. (2002): "Microgeographic variation in Caiman latirostris ". J. Exp. Zool. Vol 294: 387- 396. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jez.10200
65. Villela P.M.S. (2004): Caracterização genética de populações de jacaré-de-papo-amarelo (Caiman latirostris), utilizando marcadores microssatélites. Unpubl. Mg. Thesis, Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz, Universidade de São Paulo.
66. Villela P.M.S. , Coutinho L.L. , Piña C.I. , Verdade L.M. (2008): "Macrogeographic genetic variation in broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris)". J. Exp. Zool. Vol 309A: 628- 636. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jez.489
67. Weaver J.P. , Rodriguez D. , Venegas-Anaya M. , Cedeño-Vázquez J.R. , Forstner M.J.R. , Densmore L.D. III (2008): "Genetic characterization of captive Cuban crocodiles (Crocodylus rhombifer) and evidence of hybridization with the American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus)". J. Exp. Zool. Vol 309A: 649- 660. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jez.471
68. Weir L.K. , Breau C. , Hutchings J.A. , Cunjak R.A. (2010): "Multiple paternity and variance in male fertilization success within Atlantic salmon Salmo salar redds in a naturally spawning population". J. Fish Biol. Vol 77: 479- 493.
69. White P.S. , Densmore L.D. (1992): "Mitochondrial DNA isolation". In: Molecular Genetic Analysis of Populations. A Practical Approach. The Practical Approach Series, p. 29- 57. Hoelzel A.R. , Ed., Oxford, Oxford University Press.
70. Wright S. (1969): Evolution and the Genetics of Populations II. The Theory of Gene Frequencies, Vol. 2. Chicago, University of Chicago Press.
71. Wu X.B. , Wang Y.Q. , Zhou K.Y. , Zhu W.Q. , Nie J.S. , Wang C.L. , Xie W.S. (2002): "Genetic variation in captive population of Chinese alligator, Alligator sinensis, revealed by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)". Biol. Conserv. Vol 106: 435- 441. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3207(01)00249-X
72. Zucoloto R.B. (2003): Desenvolvimento de seqüencias de DNA microssatélite para estudo de populações remanescentes de Jacaré-de-Papo Amarelo (Caiman latirostris), da região central do estado de São Paulo. Tese de Doutorado, Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade de São Paulo.
73. Zucoloto R.B. , Verdade L.M. , Coutinho L.L. (2002): "Microsatellite DNA library for Caiman latirostris ". J. Exp. Zool. Vol 294: 346- 351. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jez.10190
74. Zucoloto R.B. , Marqui Schimidt Villela P. , Verdade L.M. , Coutinho L.L. (2006): "Cross-species microsatellite amplification in South American Caimans (Caiman spp. and Paleosuchus palpebrosus)". Gen. Mol. Biol. Vol 29: 75- 78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1415-47572006000100015
75. Zucoloto R.B. , Verdade L.M. , Villela P.M.S. , Regitano L.C.A. , Coutinho L.L. (2009): "Parentage test in broad-snouted caimans (Caiman latirostris, Crocodylidae) using microsatellite DNA" ( short communication). Gen. Mol. Biol. Vol 32: 874- 881. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1415-47572009005000077
http://brill.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1163/156853812x624423
Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1163/156853812x624423
2012-01-01
2016-12-05

Sign-in

Can't access your account?
  • Tools

  • Add to Favorites
  • Printable version
  • Email this page
  • Subscribe to ToC alert
  • Get permissions
  • Recommend to your library

    You must fill out fields marked with: *

    Librarian details
    Your details
    Why are you recommending this title?
    Select reason:
     
    Amphibia-Reptilia — Recommend this title to your library
  • Export citations
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation