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Salt tolerance of Rana temporaria: spawning site selection and survival during embryonic development (Amphibia, Anura)

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Spawning site selection of Rana temporaria is dependent on the salinity of the water. In the nature reserve 'Salzwiesen von Münzenberg' (Germany) the frogs avoided increased conductivity values, Cl- ion concentrations and salinities and selected lower values for spawning. In the laboratory Gosner stages 20/21 to 22/23 were more sensitive to sodium than the earlier G stages 8 to 20/21 (exposition for 72 h) though they were exposed for the shorter time period of 24 h. The 'no observed effect concentration' (NOEC) between G stages 8/9 and 20/21 was 648 ppm (3350 μS, 2.2‰ salinity) for Na+ and 1872 ppm (6500 μS, 4.0‰ salinity) for K+. The NOEC between G stages 20/21 and 22/23 was 1490 ppm (7400 μS, 4.5‰ salinity) for Na+ and for K+ also 1872 ppm (6500 μS, 4.0‰ salinity). All developmental stages tolerated much higher ion concentrations and conductivity values in the laboratory than the adult frogs selected for spawning.

Affiliations: 1: Institute of Zoology, Johannes Gutenberg-University, Saarstrasse 21, D-55099 Mainz, Germany


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