Cookies Policy

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

Impatient traders or contingent reciprocators? Evidence for the extended time-course of grooming exchanges in baboons

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

Access this article

+ Tax (if applicable)
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

image of Behaviour

The scarcity of evidence for contingent reciprocity has led to a growing interest in how market forces shape the distribution of exchanges in animal groups. In a biological market, supply and demand determines the value of an exchange, and individuals choose to trade with the partner offering the highest value. Partners maximize their immediate benefits without the need to monitor the balance of their exchange over time. Applied to grooming exchanges in primate groups, a market model predicts that females will primarily balance the amount of grooming they trade within single bouts, particularly when all partners offer similar value. If some partners can offer other benefits, like reduced aggression, females may exchange grooming for those benefits. In such cases, grooming will not be evenly balanced within bouts. Here, we examine the patterning of grooming in a group of free-ranging olive baboons (Papio anubis). In contrast to predictions derived from a biological market model, two-thirds of all grooming bouts in this group were completely one-sided and females did not consistently provide more grooming to higher-ranking partners. Grooming was more evenly balanced across multiple bouts than within single bouts, suggesting that females are not constrained to complete exchanges within single transactions.

Affiliations: 1: Department of Anthropology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA;, Email:; 2: Department of Anthropology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA


Full text loading...


Data & Media loading...

Article metrics loading...



Can't access your account?
  • Tools

  • Add to Favorites
  • Printable version
  • Email this page
  • Subscribe to ToC alert
  • Get permissions
  • Recommend to your library

    You must fill out fields marked with: *

    Librarian details
    Your details
    Why are you recommending this title?
    Select reason:
    Behaviour — Recommend this title to your library
  • Export citations
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation