Cookies Policy
X

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

A two-level problem: habitat selection in relation to prey abundance in an ambush predator, the speckled rattlesnake (Crotalus mitchellii)

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

Access this article

+ Tax (if applicable)
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

image of Behaviour

Understanding how food distribution influences habitat choice is a central goal of behavioural ecology. Because animals select habitats at different scales, and because the selection criteria used may be scale-dependent, studies examining the significance of food in relation to habitat selection should ideally incorporate more than one spatial scale. We relied on spatial ecology data and prey abundance estimates to examine whether prey (rodent) abundance is a consistent predictor of habitat selection at two different spatial scales in an ambush predator, the speckled rattlesnake (Crotalus mitchellii), during the mating and post-mating seasons. At the macrohabitat level, selection and avoidance of particular macrohabitats by C. mitchellii positively correlated with rodent abundance during the post-mating season. Because most snake foraging activity occurs during the post-mating season, this finding suggests that C. mitchellii selects macrohabitats that increase prey encounter rates. In contrast, rodent abundance was relatively low at the microhabitats selected by the snakes. Therefore, the higher prey abundance in C. mitchellii’s preferred macrohabitat did not translate into increased access to prey at the snake microhabitats, indicating that prey distribution may not be a constant predictor of predator habitat choice across spatial scales. Indirect evidence suggests that lower prey abundance at the snake microhabitats was the result of changes in rodent behaviour (e.g., avoiding or reducing activity at snake locations) to decrease predation risk. Our study underscores the dynamics of predator–prey interactions in nature, and emphasizes the challenges that ambush predators may face when foraging for risk-sensitive prey.

Affiliations: 1: School of Life Sciences, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, 4505 Maryland Parkway, Las Vegas, NV 89154-4004, USA

10.1163/156853912X623739
/content/journals/10.1163/156853912x623739
dcterms_title,pub_keyword,dcterms_description,pub_author
10
5
Loading
Loading

Full text loading...

/content/journals/10.1163/156853912x623739
Loading

Data & Media loading...

1. Akaike H. ( 1974). "A new look at the statistical model identification". — IEEE Trans. Automat. Control Vol 19: 716- 723. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TAC.1974.1100705
2. Barnes R.F.W. ( 2001). "How reliable are dung counts for estimating elephant numbers?"— Afr. J. Ecol. Vol 39: 1- 9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2028.2001.00266.x
3. Bearhop S. , Hilton G.M. , Votier S.C. , Waldron S. ( 2004). "Stable isotope ratios indicate that body condition in migrating passerines is influenced by winter habitat". — Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B: Biol. Vol 271( S4): 215- 218. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2003.0129
4. Bergman C.M. , Fryxell J.M. , Gates C.C. , Fortin D. ( 2001). "Ungulate foraging strategies: energy maximizing or time minimizing?"— J. Anim. Ecol. Vol 70: 289- 300. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2656.2001.00496.x
5. Bock C.E. , Vierling S.L. , Haire S.L. , Boone J.D. , Merkle W.W. ( 2002). "Patterns of rodent abundance on open-space grasslands in relation to suburban edges". — Conserv. Biol. Vol 16: 1653- 1658. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1739.2002.01291.x
6. Bonnet X. , Naulleau G. ( 1996). "Are body reserves important for reproduction in male dark green snakes (Colubridae: Coluber viridiflavus)?"— Herpetologica Vol 52: 137- 146.
7. Bost C.A. , Thiebot J.B. , Pinaud D. , Cherel Y. , Trathan P.N. ( 2009). "Where do penguins go during the inter-breeding period? Using geolocation to track the winter dispersion of the macaroni penguin". — Biol. Lett. Vol 5: 473- 476. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2009.0265
8. Brattstrom B.H. ( 1965). "Body temperatures of reptiles". — Am. Midl. Nat. Vol 73: 376- 422. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2423461
9. Burnham P.K. , Anderson D.R. ( 2002). Model selection and multimodel inference. — A practical information-theoretic approach. — Springer, New York, NY.
10. Charnov E.L. ( 1976). "Optimal foraging, the marginal value theorem". — Theor. Popul. Biol. Vol 9: 129- 136. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0040-5809(76)90040-X
11. Ciarniello L.M. , Boyce M.S. , Seip D.R. , Heard D.C. ( 2007). "Grizzly bear habitat selection is scale dependent". — Ecol. Appl. Vol 17: 1424- 1440. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/06-1100.1
12. Clark R.W. ( 2004). "Timber rattlesnakes ( Crotalus horridus) use chemical cues to select ambush sites". — J. Chem. Ecol. Vol 30: 608- 617. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:JOEC.0000018632.27010.1e
13. Clark R.W. ( 2006). "Fixed videography to study predation behavior of an ambush foraging snake, Crotalus horridus ". — Copeia: 181- 187. http://dx.doi.org/10.1643/0045-8511(2006)6[181:FVTSPB]2.0.CO;2
14. Comins H.N. , Hassell M.P. ( 1979). "The dynamics of optimally foraging predators and parasitoids". — J. Anim. Ecol. Vol 48: 335- 351. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/4165
15. Diller L.V. , Johnson D.R. ( 1988). "Food habits, consumption rates, and predation rates of western rattlesnakes and gopher snakes in Southwestern Idaho". — Herpetologica Vol 44: 228- 233.
16. Duvall D. , Goode M.J. , Hayes W.K. , Leonhardt J.K. , Brown D.G. ( 1990). "Prairie rattlesnake vernal migration: field experimental analyses and survival value". — Nat. Geogr. Res. Vol 6: 457- 469.
17. Duvall D. , King M.B. , Gutzwiller K.J. ( 1985). "Behavioral ecology and ethology of the prairie rattlesnake". — Nat. Geogr. Res. Vol 1: 80- 111.
18. Ernst C.H. , Ernst E.M. ( 2003). Snakes of the United States and Canada. — Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC.
19. Fitch H.S. ( 1949). "Study of snake populations in central California". — Am. Midl. Nat. Vol 41: 513- 579. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2421774
20. Fortin D. , Fryxell J.M. , O’Brodovich L. , Frandsen D. ( 2003). "Foraging ecology of bison at the landscape and plant community levels: the applicability of energy maximization principles". — Oecologia Vol 134: 219- 227. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00442-002-1112-4
21. Fryxell J.M. , Wilmshurst J.F. , Sinclair A.R.E. , Haydon D.T. , Holt R.D. , Abrams P.A. ( 2005). "Landscape scale, heterogeneity, and the viability of Serengeti grazers". — Ecol. Lett. Vol 8: 328- 335. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2005.00727.x
22. Glas A.S. , Lijmer J.G. , Prins M.H. , Bonsel G.J. , Bossuyt P.M.M. ( 2003). "The diagnostic odds ratio: a single indicator of test performance". — J. Clin. Epidemiol. Vol 56: 1129- 1135. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0895-4356(03)00177-X
23. Glaudas X. , Rodríguez-Robles J.A. ( 2011). "Vagabond males and sedentary females: spatial ecology and mating system of the speckled rattlesnake ( Crotalus mitchellii)". — Biol. J. Linn. Soc. Vol 103: 681- 695. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8312.2011.01677.x
24. Greene H.W. ( 1997). Snakes: the evolution of mystery in nature. — University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.
25. Gunnarsson T.G. , Gill J.A. , Newton J. , Potts P.M. , Sutherland W.J. ( 2005). "Seasonal matching of habitat quality and fitness in a migratory bird". — Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B: Biol. Vol 272: 2319- 2323. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2005.3214
26. Heithaus M. , Dill L. , Marshall G. , Buhleier B. ( 2002). "Habitat use and foraging behavior of tiger sharks ( Galeocerdo cuvier) in a seagrass ecosystem". — Mar. Biol. Vol 140: 237- 248. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00227-001-0711-7
27. Horne J.S. , Garton E.O. , Rachlow J.L. ( 2008). "A synoptic model of animal space use: simultaneous estimation of home range, habitat selection, and inter/intra-specific relationships". — Ecol. Model. Vol 214: 338- 348. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2008.02.042
28. Huey R.B. , Pianka E.R. ( 1981). "Ecological consequences of foraging mode". — Ecology Vol 62: 991- 999. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1936998
29. Johnson C.N. , Jarman P.J. ( 1987). "Macropod studies at Wallaby Creek VI. A validation of the use of dung pellet counts for measuring absolute densities of populations of macropodids". — Austr. Wildl. Res. Vol 14: 139- 145. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/WR9870139
30. Johnson D.H. ( 1980). "The comparison of usage and availability measurements for evaluating resource preference". — Ecology Vol 61: 65- 71. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1937156
31. Johnson J.B. , Omland K.S. ( 2004). "Model selection in ecology and evolution". — Trends Ecol. Evol. Vol 19: 101- 108. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2003.10.013
32. Karels T.J. , Koppel L. , Hik D.S. ( 2004). "Fecal pellet counts as a technique for monitoring an alpine-dwelling social rodent, the hoary marmot ( Marmota caligata)". — Arct. Antarct. Alp. Res. Vol 36: 490- 494. http://dx.doi.org/10.1657/1523-0430(2004)036[0490:FPCAAT]2.0.CO;2
33. Keating K.A. , Cherry S. ( 2004). "Use and interpretation of logistic regression in habitat-selection studies". — J. Wildl. Manage. Vol 68: 744- 789. http://dx.doi.org/10.2193/0022-541X(2004)068[0774:UAIOLR]2.0.CO;2
34. King M.B. , Duvall D. ( 1990). "Prairie rattlesnake seasonal migrations: episodes of movement, vernal foraging and sex differences". — Anim. Behav. Vol 39: 924- 935. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0003-3472(05)80957-1
35. Krebs C.J. , Boonstra R. , Nams V. , O’Donoghue M. , Hodges K.E. , Boutin S. ( 2001). "Estimating snowshoe hare population density from pellet plots: a further evaluation". — Can. J. Zool. Vol 79: 1- 4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/z00-177
36. Levin S.A. ( 1992). "The problem of pattern and scale in ecology". — Ecology Vol 73: 1943- 1967. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1941447
37. Lima S.L. , Dill L.M. ( 1990). "Behavioural decisions made under the risk of predation: a review and prospectus". — Can. J. Zool. Vol 68: 619- 640. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/z90-092
38. MacArthur R.H. , Pianka E.R. ( 1966). "On optimal use of a patchy environment". — Am. Nat. Vol 100: 603- 609. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/282454
39. Madsen T. , Shine R. ( 1996). "Seasonal migration of predators and prey — a study of pythons and rats in tropical Australia". — Ecology Vol 77: 149- 156. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2265663
40. Madsen T. , Shine R. ( 2000). "Energy vs. risk: costs of reproduction in free-ranging pythons in tropical Australia". — Austral. Ecol. Vol 25: 670- 675. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1442-9993.2000.tb00073.x
41. Martínez J.A. , Serrano D. , Zuberogoitia I. ( 2003). "Predictive models of habitat preferences for the Eurasian eagle owl Bubo bubo: a multiscale approach". — Ecography Vol 26: 21- 28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0587.2003.03368.x
42. Massé A. , Côté S.D. ( 2009). "Habitat selection of a large herbivore at high density and without predation: trade-off between forage and cover?"— J. Mammal. Vol 90: 961- 970. http://dx.doi.org/10.1644/08-MAMM-A-148.1
43. Mayor S.J. , Schaefer J.A. , Schneider D.C. , Mahoney S.P. ( 2007). "Spectrum of selection: new approaches to detecting the scale-dependent response to habitat". — Ecology Vol 88: 1634- 1640. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/06-1672.1
44. Millspaugh J.J. , Marzluff J.M. ( 2001). Radio tracking and animal populations. — Academic Press, San Diego, CA. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-012497781-5/50016-5
45. Murphy R.W. , Fu J. , Lathrop A. , Feltham J.V. , Kovac V. ( 2002). "Phylogeny of the rattlesnakes ( Crotalusand Sistrurus) inferred from sequences of five mitochondrial DNA genes". — In: Biology of the vipers( Schuett G.W. , Höggren M. , Douglas M.E. , Greene H.W. , eds). Eagle Mountain Publishing, Eagle Mountain, UT, p. 69- 92.
46. Murray D.L. , Roth J.D. , Ellsworth E. , Wirsing A.J. , Steury T.D. ( 2002). "Estimating low-density snowshoe hare populations using fecal pellet counts". — Can. J. Zool. Vol 80: 771- 781. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/z02-027
47. Mysterud A. , Larsen P.K. , Ims R.A. , Østbye E. ( 1999). "Habitat selection by roe deer and sheep: does habitat ranking reflect resource availability?"— Can. J. Zool. Vol 77: 776- 783. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/z99-025
48. Neff D.J. ( 1968). "The pellet-group count technique for big game trend, census, and distribution: a review". — J. Wildl. Manage. Vol 32: 597- 614. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3798941
49. Norris D.R. , Marra P.P. , Kyser T.K. , Sherry T.W. ( 2004). "Tropical winter habitat limits reproductive success on the temperate breeding grounds in a migratory bird". — Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B: Biol. Vol 271: 59- 64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2003.2569
50. O’Donnell R.P. , Shine R. , Mason R.T. ( 2004). "Seasonal anorexia in the male red-sided garter snake, Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis ". — Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. Vol 56: 413- 419. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00265-004-0801-x
51. Orians G.H. , Wittenberger J.F. ( 1991). "Spatial and temporal scales in habitat selection". — Am. Nat. Vol 137: S29- S49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/285138
52. Pierce B.M. , Longland W.S. , Jenkins S.H. ( 1992). "Rattlesnake predation on desert rodents: microhabitat and species-specific effects on risk". — J. Mammal. Vol 73: 859- 865. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1382207
53. Pyke G.H. ( 1984). "Optimal foraging theory: a critical review". — Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. Vol 15: 523- 575. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.es.15.110184.002515
54. Randall J.A. , Hatch S.M. , Hekkala E.R. ( 1995). "Inter-specific variation in anti-predator behavior in sympatric species of kangaroo rat". — Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. Vol 36: 243- 250. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00165833
55. Reed R.N. , Douglas M.E. ( 2002). "Ecology of the Grand Canyon rattlesnake ( Crotalus viridis abyssus) in the Little Colorado River Canyon, Arizona". — Southwest. Nat. Vol 47: 30- 39. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3672799
56. Reichwaldt E.S. ( 2008). "Food quality influences habitat selection in Daphnia ". — Freshw. Biol. Vol 53: 872- 883. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2427.2007.01945.x
57. Reilly, S.M., McBrayer, L.D. & Miles, D.B. (eds) ( 2007). Lizard ecology: the evolutionary consequences of foraging mode. — Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
58. Reinert H.K. ( 1992). "Radiotelemetric field studies of pitvipers: data acquisition and analysis". — In: Biology of the pitvipers( Campbell J.A. , Brodie E.D. , eds). Selva, Tyler, TX, p. 185- 198.
59. Reinert H.K. , Cundall D. ( 1982). "An improved surgical implantation method for radio-tracking snakes". — Copeia: 702- 705. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1444674
60. Reinert H.K. , Cundall D. , Bushar L.M. ( 1984). "Foraging behavior of the timber rattlesnake, Crotalus horridus ". — Copeia: 976- 981. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1445342
61. Rodgers A.R. , Carr A.P. , Beyer H.L. , Smith L. , Kie J.G. ( 2007). HRT: home range tools for arcGIS v1.1. — Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Centre for Northern Forest Ecosystem Research, Thunder Bay, ON.
62. Ropert-Coudert Y. , Kato A. , Wilson R.P. , Cannell B. ( 2006). "Foraging strategies and prey encounter rate of free-ranging little penguins". — Mar. Biol. Vol 149: 139- 148. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00227-005-0188-x
63. Roth E.D. , May P.G. , Farrell T.M. ( 1999). "Pigmy rattlesnakes use frog-derived chemical cues to select foraging sites". — Copeia: 772- 774. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1447612
64. Row J.R. , Blouin-Demers G. ( 2006). "Kernels are not accurate estimators of home-range size for herpetofauna". — Copeia: 797- 802. http://dx.doi.org/10.1643/0045-8511(2006)6[797:KANAEO]2.0.CO;2
65. Rundus A.S. , Owings D.H. , Joshi S.S. , Chinn E. , Giannini N. ( 2007). "Ground squirrels use an infrared signal to deter rattlesnake predation". — Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA Vol 104: 14372- 14376. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0702599104
66. Schoener T.W. ( 1983). "Simple models of optimal feeding-territory size: a reconciliation". — Am. Nat. Vol 121: 608- 621. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/284090
67. Shine R. ( 1980). "“Costs” of reproduction in reptiles". — Oecologia Vol 46: 92- 100. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00346972
68. Shine R. , Sun L.X. , Kerney M. , Fitzgerald M. ( 2002). "Why do juvenile Chinese pit-vipers ( Gloydius shedaoensis) select arboreal ambush sites?"— Ethology Vol 108: 897- 910. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1439-0310.2002.00824.x
69. Sih A. ( 1984). "The behavioral response race between predator and prey". — Am. Nat. Vol 123: 143- 150. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/284193
70. Skomal G.B. , Zeeman S.I. , Chisholm J.H. , Summers E.L. , Walsh H.J. , McMahon K.W. , Thorrold S.R. ( 2009). "Transequatorial migrations by basking sharks in the western Atlantic Ocean". — Curr. Biol. Vol 19: 1019- 1022. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2009.04.019
71. Stephens D.W. , Krebs J.R. ( 1986). Foraging theory. — Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.
72. Stones R.C. , Hayward C.L. ( 1968). "Natural history of the desert woodrat". — Am. Midl. Nat. Vol 80: 458- 476. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2423539
73. Swaisgood R.R. , Rowe M.P. , Owings D.H. ( 1999). "Assessment of rattlesnake dangerousness by California ground squirrels: exploitation of cues from rattling sounds". — Anim. Behav. Vol 57: 1301- 1310. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/anbe.1999.1095
74. Taylor E.N. , Malawy M.A. , Browning D.M. , Lemar S.V. , DeNardo D.F. ( 2005). "Effects of food supplementation on the physiological ecology of female Western diamond-backed rattlesnakes ( Crotalus atrox)". — Oecologia Vol 144: 206- 213. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00442-005-0056-x
75. Theodoratus D.H. , Chiszar D. ( 2000). "Habitat selection and prey odor in the foraging behaviour of western rattlesnakes ( Crotalus viridis)". — Behaviour Vol 137: 119- 135. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/156853900501908
76. Verdolin J.L. ( 2006). "Meta-analysis of foraging and predation risk trade-offs in terrestrial systems". — Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. Vol 60: 457- 464. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00265-006-0172-6
77. Vestal E.H. ( 1938). "Biotic relations of the wood rat ( Neotoma fuscipes) in the Berkeley hills". — J. Mammal. Vol 19: 1- 36. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1374278
78. Wallace R.L. , Diller L.V. ( 1990). "Feeding ecology of the rattlesnake, Crotalus viridis oreganus, in northern Idaho". — J. Herpetol. Vol 24: 246- 253. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1564390
79. Wang G.C.S. , Jain C.L. ( 2003). Regression analysis: modeling and forecasting. — Graceway, Flushing, NY.
80. Wang J. , Gao W. , Wang L. , Metzner W. , Ma J. , Feng J. ( 2010). "Seasonal variation in prey abundance influences habitat use by greater horseshoe bats ( Rhinolophus ferrumequinum) in a temperate deciduous forest". — Can. J. Zool. Vol 88: 315- 323. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/Z10-005
81. Ward D. , Saltz D. ( 1994). "Foraging at different spatial scales: Dorcas gazelles foraging for lilies in the Negev Desert". — Ecology Vol 75: 48- 58. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1939381
82. Wasserman L. ( 2000). "Bayesian model selection and model averaging". — J. Math. Psychol. Vol 44: 92- 107. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jmps.1999.1278
83. Wirsing A.J. , Heithaus M.R. , Dill L.M. ( 2007). "Fear factor: do dugongs ( Dugong dugon) trade food for safety from tiger sharks ( Galeocerdo cuvier)?"— Oecologia Vol 153: 1031- 1040. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00442-007-0802-3
http://brill.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1163/156853912x623739
Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1163/156853912x623739
2011-01-01
2017-02-26

Sign-in

Can't access your account?
  • Tools

  • Add to Favorites
  • Printable version
  • Email this page
  • Subscribe to ToC alert
  • Get permissions
  • Recommend to your library

    You must fill out fields marked with: *

    Librarian details
    Your details
    Why are you recommending this title?
    Select reason:
     
    Behaviour — Recommend this title to your library
  • Export citations
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation