No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.
You must be logged in to use this functionality
An algivorous cichlid, Variabilichromis moorii (Vm), defends permanent territories in Lake Tanganyika, Africa. A zoobenthivorous cichlid, Neolamprologus mustax (Nm), spends 60% of daylight hours foraging in Vm territories, from which other zoobenthivorous fishes are chased out and consequently which are much richer in prey animals than areas outside of Vm territories. We conducted a field experiment to examine whether Nm residents and non-residents received different degrees of attacks from Vm. Nm fish were caught in their territories, released at a point distant from these territories, and followed to observe interactions with Vm fish. The frequency of attacks received by the displaced Nm fish was greater than attacks received by Nm residents, indicating that Nm residents had easier access to Vm territories than non-residents did. A possible mechanism for this is reduced aggression of Vm towards Nm residents, as a result of the ‘dear enemy’ effect that has been reported in territorial contests between rivals. An alternative mechanism is that tolerance towards Nm differs among Vm fish and Nm residents selectively visit more tolerant Vm fish due to previous experience while non-residents randomly approach both tolerant and hostile Vm fish. The ability of Vm to discriminate between Nm residents and non-residents is essential to the former mechanism but not to the latter. To more specifically examine which mechanism works in the Vm-Nm commensal system, we will need to follow individually identified Vm fish interacting with Nm residents and non-residents.
Full text loading...
Baker M.C. , Thompson D.B. , Sherman G.L. ( 1981). "Neighbor/Stranger discrimination in white-crowned sparrows". — Condor Vol 83: 265- 267. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1367322
Bee M.A. , Gerhardt H.C. ( 2001). "Habituation as a mechanism of reduced aggression between neighboring territorial male bullfrog ( Rana catesbeiana)". — J. Com. Psychol. Vol 115: 68- 82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0735-7036.115.1.68
Booksmythe I. , Jennions M.D. , Backwell P.R.Y. ( 2010). "Interspecific assistance: fiddler crabs help heterospecific neighbours in territory defence". — Biol. Lett. Vol 6: 748- 750. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2010.0454
Davis M.S. ( 1987). "Acoustically mediated neighbor recognition in the North American bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana ". — Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. Vol 21: 185- 190. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00303209
Fisher J. ( 1954). "Evolution and bird sociality". — In: Evolution as a process( Huxley J. , Hardy A.C. , Ford E.B. , eds). Allen and Unwin, London, p. 71- 83.
Frostman P. , Sherman P.T. ( 2004). "Behavioral response to familiar and unfamiliar neighbors in a territorial cichlid Neolamprologus pulcher ". — Ichthyol. Res. Vol 51: 283- 285. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10228-004-0223-9
Grangier J. , Le Breton J. , Dejean A. , Orivel J. ( 2007). "Coexistence between Cyphomyrmexants and dominant populations of Wasmannia auropunctata ". — Behav. Process. Vol 74: 93- 96. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2006.10.009
Hanika S. , Kramer B. ( 2005). "Intra-male variability of its communication signal in the weakly electric fish, Marcusenius macrolepidotus(South African form), and possible functions". — Behaviour Vol 142: 145- 166. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/1568539053627677
Husak J.F. , Fox S.F. ( 2003). "Adult male collared lizards, Crotaphytus collaris, increase aggression towards displaced neighbours". — Anim. Behav. Vol 65: 391- 396. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/anbe.2003.2058
Karino K. ( 1997). "Influence of brood size and offspring size on parental investment in a biparental cichlid, Neolamprologus moorii ". — J. Ethol. Vol 15: 39- 43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02767324
Karino K. ( 1998). "Depth-related differences in territory size and defense in the herbivorous cichlid, Neolamprologus mooriiin Lake Tanganyika". — Ichthyol. Res. Vol 45: 89- 94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02678579
Konings A. ( 1988). Tanganyika cichlids . — Raket, Pijnacker.
Langen T.A. , Tripet F. , Nonacs P. ( 2000). "The red and the black: habituation and the dear-enemy phenomenon in two desert Pheidole ants". — Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. Vol 48: 285- 292. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s002650000223
Leiser J.K. ( 2003). "When are neighbours ‘dear enemies’ and when are they not? The responses of territorial male variegated pupfish, Cyprinodon variegatus, to neighbours, strangers and heterospecifics". — Anim. Behav. Vol 65: 453- 462. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/anbe.2003.2087
Liu Z. , Yamane S. , Yamamoto H. , Wang Q. ( 2000). "Nestmate discrimination and cuticular profiles of a temporary parasitic ant Lasiussp. and its host L. fuliginosus(Hymenoptera, Formicidae)". — J. Ethol. Vol 18: 69- 73.
López P. , Martín J. ( 2002). "Chemical rival recognition decreases aggression levels in male Iberian wall lizards, Podarcis hispanica ". — Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. Vol 51: 461- 465. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00265-001-0447-x
Mackin W.A. ( 2005). "Neighbor–stranger discrimination in Audubon’s shearwater ( Puffinus l. lherminieri) explained by a “real enemy” effect". — Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. Vol 59: 326- 332. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00265-005-0055-2
Müller C.A. , Manser M.B. ( 2007). "‘Nasty neighbours’ rather than ‘dear enemies’ in a social carnivore". — Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B: Biol. Vol 274: 959- 965. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2006.0222
Ochi H. , Awata S. ( 2009). "Resembling the juvenile colour of host cichlid facilitates access of the guest cichlid to host territory". — Behaviour Vol 146: 741- 756. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/156853909X446181
Poll M. ( 1986). "Classification des Cichlidae du lac Tanganyika: tribus, genres et espèces". — Mémoires de la Classe des Sciences, Académie Royale de Belgique Vol 45: 1- 163.
Rosell F. , Gundersen G. , Le Galliard J.F. ( 2008). "Territory ownership and familiarity status affect how much male root voles ( Microtus oeconomus) invest in territory defence". — Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. Vol 62: 1559- 1568. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00265-008-0585-5
Sturmbauer C. , Hahn C. , Koblmüller S. , Postl L. , Sinyinza D. , Sefc K.M. ( 2008). "Variation of territory size and defense behavior in breeding pairs of the endemic Lake Tanganyika cichlid Variabilichromis moorii ". — Hydrobiologia Vol 615: 49- 56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10750-008-9567-x
Wilson E.O. ( 1975). Sociobiology. — Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.