Cookies Policy
X

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

Vocalizations and associated behaviour of Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) calves

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

Access this article

+ Tax (if applicable)
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

image of Behaviour

The present study describes the acoustic structure and associated behavioural contexts of vocalizations of Asian elephant calves. Three hundred twenty-seven vocalizations of six calves aged between 6 and 27 months were recorded at the Emmen and the Cologne zoo. Based on temporal and structural characteristics including nonlinear phenomena, we structurally distinguished four call types, the rumble, the roar, the chirp and the trumpet. Most vocalizations were uttered during all forms of play behaviour, with chirps and trumpets dominating here. Rumbles were mainly recorded in combination with roars; the latter were highly chaotic in structure and associated with higher arousal contexts (e.g., being separated from the mother). These first insights into the vocal behaviour of Asian elephant calves reveal that calf vocalizations clearly differ in acoustic structure and application from those of adults and older juveniles. This highlights the importance of investigating the vocal ontogeny of elephants as well as other species having a long adolescence and developmental period.

Affiliations: 1: aDepartment of Evolutionary Biology, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14b, A-1090 Vienna, Austria; 2: bDepartment of Cognitive Biology, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14b, A-1090 Vienna, Austria

10.1163/156853912X648516
/content/journals/10.1163/156853912x648516
dcterms_title,pub_keyword,dcterms_description,pub_author
6
3
Loading
Loading

Full text loading...

/content/journals/10.1163/156853912x648516
Loading

Data & Media loading...

1. Archie E.A. , Moss C.J. , Alberts S.C. ( 2006). "The ties that bind: genetic relatedness predicts the fission and fusion of social groups in wild African elephants". — Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B: Biol. Vol 273: 513- 522. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2005.3361
2. Bachorowski J.A. , Owren M.J. ( 1999). "Acoustic correlates of talker sex and individual talker identity are present in a short vowel segment produced in running speech". — J. Acoust. Soc. Am. Vol 106: 1054- 1063. http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.427115
3. Berg J.K. ( 1983). "Vocalizations and associated behaviors of the African elephant ( Loxodonta africana) in captivity". — Z. Tierpsychol. Vol 63: 63- 79. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0310.1983.tb00741.x
4. Berry D.A. , Herzel H. , Titze I.R. , Krischer K. ( 1994). "Interpretation of biomechanical simulations of normal and chaotic vocal fold oscillations with empirical eigenfunctions". — J. Acoust. Soc. Am. Vol 95: 3595- 3604. http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.409875
5. Berry D.A. , Herzel H. , Titze I.R. , Story B.H. ( 1996). "Bifurcations in excised larynx experiments". — J. Voice Vol 10: 129- 138.
6. Brown C.H. , Alipour F. , Berry D.A. , Montequin D. ( 2003). "Laryngeal biomechanics and vocal communication in the squirrel monkey, Saimiri boliviensis ". — J. Acoust. Soc. Am. Vol 113: 2114- 2126. http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1528930
7. De Silva S. ( 2010). "Acoustic communication in the Asian elephant, Elephas maximus maximus ". — Behaviour Vol 147: 825- 852. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/000579510X495762
8. De Silva S. , Ranjeewa A.D.G. , Kryazhimskiy S. ( 2011). "The dynamics of social networks among female Asian elephants". — BMC Ecol. Vol 11: 17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-6785-11-17
9. Douglas-Hamilton I. ( 1972). The ecology and behaviour of the African elephant. — PhD thesis, University of Oxford, Oxford.
10. Fee M.S. , Shraiman B. , Pesaran B. , Mitra P.P. ( 1998). "The role of nonlinear dynamics of the syrinx in the vocalizations of a songbird". — Nature Vol 395: 67- 71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/25725
11. Fernando P. , Lande R. ( 2000). "Molecular genetic and behavioral analysis of social organization in the Asian elephant ( Elephas maximus)". — Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. Vol 48: 84- 91. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s002650000218
12. Fitch W.T. ( 1997). "Tract length and formant frequency dispersion correlate with body size in rhesus macaques". — J. Acoust. Soc. Am. Vol 102: 1213- 1222. http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.421048
13. Fitch W.T. ( 2000). "The evolution of speech: a comparative review". — Trends Cogn. Sci Vol 4: 258- 267. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1364-6613(00)01494-7
14. Fitch W.T. , Neubauer J. , Herzel H. ( 2002). "Calls out of chaos: the adaptive significance of nonlinear phenomena in mammalian vocal production". — Anim. Behav. Vol 63: 407- 418. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/anbe.2001.1912
15. Fletcher N.H. ( 2000). "A class of chaotic bird calls?"— J. Acoust. Soc. Am. Vol 108: 821- 826. http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.429615
16. Garstang M. , Larom D. , Raspet R. , Lindeque M. ( 1995). "Atmospheric controls on elephant communication". — J. Exp. Biol. Vol 198: 939- 951.
17. Gilbert J. , Dalmont J.-P. ( 2010). Brassy sounds, from trombone to elephant. — Proc. ISMA, August, Sydney and Katoomba, NSW, 26–31 August, no. 48.
18. Hammerschmidt K. , Ansorge V. , Fischer J. , Todt D. ( 1994). "Dusk calling in Barbary macaques ( Macaca sylvanus): demand for social shelter". — Am. J. Primatol. Vol 32: 277- 289. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.1350320405
19. Herzel H. ( 1993). "Bifurcation and chaos in voice signals". — Appl. Mechan. Rev. Vol 46: 399- 413. http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/1.3120369
20. Herzel H. , Berry D. , Titze I. , Saleh M. ( 1994). "Analysis of vocal disorders with methods from nonlinear dynamics". — J. Speech Hear. Res. Vol 37: 1008. http://dx.doi.org/10.1044/jshr.3705.1008
21. Langbauer W.R. ( 2000). "Elephant communication". — Zoo Biol. Vol 19: 425- 445. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1098-2361(2000)19:5<425::AID-ZOO11>3.0.CO;2-A
22. Langbauer W.R. , Payne K.B. , Charif R.A. , Rapaport L. , Osborn F. ( 1991). "African elephants respond to distant playbacks of low-frequency conspecific calls". — J. Exp. Biol. Vol 157: 35- 46.
23. Lee P.C. , Moss C.J. ( 1999). "The social context for learning and behavioural development among wild African elephants". — In: Mammalian social learning( Box H.O. , Gibson K.R. , eds). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, p.  102- 125.
24. Leong K.M. , Ortolani A. , Graham L.H. , Savage A. ( 2003). "The use of low-frequency vocalizations in African elephant ( Loxodonta africana) reproductive strategies". — Horm. Behav. Vol 43: 433- 443. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0018-506X(03)00025-4
25. McComb K. , Reby D. , Baker L. , Moss C. , Sayialel S. ( 2003). "Long-distance communication of acoustic cues to social identity in African elephants". — Anim. Behav. Vol 65: 317- 329. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/anbe.2003.2047
26. McIntyre M.E. , Schumacher R.T. , Woodhouse J. ( 1983). "On the oscillations of musical instruments". — J. Acoust. Soc. Am. Vol 74: 1325- 1345. http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.390157
27. McKay G.M. ( 1973). "Behaviour and ecology of the Asiatic elephant in Southeastern Ceylon". — Smithsonian Contrib. Zool. Vol 125: 1- 113. http://dx.doi.org/10.5479/si.00810282.125
28. McKnight B.L. ( 1992). Behavioural ecology of orphan African elephants, Loxodonta africana, in Tsavo East National Park, Kenya. — M. Phil. thesis, University of Oxford, Oxford.
29. Moss C. ( 1988). Elephant memories: thirteen years in the life of an elephant family. — William Morrow, New York, NY.
30. Nair S. , Balakrishnan R. , Seelamantula C.S. , Sukumar R. ( 2009). "Vocalizations of wild Asian elephants ( Elephas maximus): structural classification and social context". — J. Acoust. Soc. Am. Vol 126: 2768- 2778. http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3224717
31. O’Connell-Rodwell C.E. , Wood J.D. , Kinzley C. , Rodwell T.C. , Poole J.H. , Puria S. ( 2007). "Wild African elephants ( Loxodonta africana) discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar conspecific seismic alarm calls". — J. Acoust. Soc. Am. Vol 122: 823- 830. http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2747161
32. Owren M.J. , Rendall D. ( 1997). "An affect-conditioning model of nonhuman primate vocal signaling". — In: Perspectives in ethology( Owings D.H. , Beecher M.D. , Thompson N.S. , eds). Plenum, New York, NY, p.  299- 346.
33. Owren M.J. , Rendall D. ( 2001). "Sound on the rebound: bringing form and function back to the forefront in understanding nonhuman primate vocal signaling". — Evol. Anthropol. Vol 10: 58- 71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/evan.1014
34. Payne K.B. , Thompson M. , Kramer L. ( 2003). "Elephant calling patterns as indicators of group size and composition: the basis for an acoustic monitoring system". — Afr. J. Ecol. Vol 41: 99- 107. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2028.2003.00421.x
35. Plant T.M. ( 2002). "Neurophysiology of puberty". — J. Adolescent Health Vol 31: 185- 191. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1054-139X(02)00484-6
36. Poole J.H. ( 2011). "Behavioral contexts of African elephant acoustic communication". — In: The Amboseli elephants: a long-term perspective on a long-lived mammal( Moss C.J. , Croze H.J. , Lee P.C. , eds). University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, p.  125- 161. http://dx.doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226542263.003.0009
37. Poole J.H. , Tyack P.L. , Stoeger-Horwath A.S. , Watwood S. ( 2005). "Elephants are capable of vocal learning". — Nature Vol 434: 455- 456. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/434455a
38. Riede T. , Arcadi A.C. , Owren M.J. ( 2007). "Nonlinear acoustics in the pant hoots of common chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes): vocalizing at the edge". — J. Acoust. Soc. Am. Vol 121: 1758- 1767. http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2427115
39. Riede T. , Herzel H. , Mehwald D. , Seidner W. , Trumler E. , Bohme G. , Tembrock G. ( 2000). "Nonlinear phenomena in the natural howling of a dog-wolf mix". — J. Acoust. Soc. Am. Vol 108: 1435- 1442. http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1289208
40. Riede T. , Wilden I. , Tembrock G. ( 1997). "Subharmonics, biphonations, and frequency jumps — common components of mammalian vocalization or indicators for disorders?"— Z. Saugetierk./Int. J. Mammal. Biol. Vol 62: 198- 203.
41. Robb M.P. , Saxman J.H. ( 1988). "Acoustic observations in young childrens non-cry vocalizations". — J. Acoust. Soc. Am. Vol 83: 1876- 1882. http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.396523
42. Schulte B.A. ( 2000). "Social structure and helping behavior in captive elephants". — Zoo Biol. Vol 19: 447- 459. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1098-2361(2000)19:5<447::AID-ZOO12>3.0.CO;2-#
43. Sikes S.K. ( 1971). The natural history of the African elephant. — Elsevier, New York, NY.
44. Soltis J. ( 2004). "The signal functions of early infant crying". — Behav. Brain Sci. Vol 27: 443- 490.
45. Soltis J. ( 2010). "Vocal communication in African elephants ( Loxodonta africana)". — Zoo Biol. Vol 29: 192- 209.
46. Soltis J. , Leong K. , Savage A. ( 2005a). "African elephant vocal communication I: antiphonal calling behaviour among affiliated females". — Anim. Behav. Vol 70: 579- 587. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2004.11.015
47. Soltis J. , Leong K. , Savage A. ( 2005b). "African elephant vocal communication II: rumble variation reflects the individual identity and emotional state of callers". — Anim. Behav. Vol 70: 589- 599. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2004.11.016
48. Steinecke I. , Herzel H. ( 1995). "Bifurcations in an asymmetric vocal fold model". — J. Acoust. Soc. Am. Vol 97: 1874- 1884. http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.412061
49. Stoeger A.S. , Charlton B.D. , Kratochvil H. , Fitch W.T. ( 2011). "Vocal cues indicate level of arousal in infant African elephant roars". — J. Acoust. Soc. Am. Vol 130: 1700- 1710. http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.3605538
50. Stoeger-Horwath A.S. , Stoeger S. , Schwammer H.M. , Kratochvil H. ( 2007). "Call repertoire of infant African elephants: first insights into the early vocal ontogeny". — J. Acoust. Soc. Am. Vol 121: 3922- 3931. http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2722216
51. Tigges M. , Mergell P. , Herzel H. , Wittenberg T. , Eysholdt U. ( 1997). "Observation and modelling of glottal biphonation". — Acustica Vol 83: 707- 714.
52. Titze I.R. ( 1994). Principles of voice production. — Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
53. Todt D. ( 1988). "Serial calling as a mediator of interaction processes: crying in primates". — In: Primate vocal communication( Todt D. , Goedeking P. , Symmes D. , eds). Springer, Berlin, p.  88- 107. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-73769-5_6
54. Tokuda I. , Riede T. , Neubauer J. , Owren M.J. , Herzel H. ( 2002). "Nonlinear analysis of irregular animal vocalizations". — J. Acoust. Soc. Am. Vol 111: 2908- 2919. http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1474440
55. Wesolek C.M. , Soltis J. , Leighty K.A. , Savage A. ( 2009). "Infant African elephant rumble vocalizations vary according to social interactions with adult females". — Bioacoustics Vol 18: 227- 239. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09524622.2009.9753603
56. Wilden I. , Herzel H. , Peters G. , Tembrock G. ( 1998). "Subharmonics, biphonation, and deterministic chaos in mammal vocalization". — Bioacoustics Vol 9: 177- 196. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09524622.1998.9753394
57. Wittemayer G. , Douglas-Hamilton I. , Getz W.M. ( 2005). "The socioecology of elephants: analysis of the processes creating multitiered social structures". — Anim. Behav. Vol 69: 1357- 1371. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2004.08.018
http://brill.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1163/156853912x648516
Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1163/156853912x648516
2012-01-01
2016-12-09

Sign-in

Can't access your account?
  • Tools

  • Add to Favorites
  • Printable version
  • Email this page
  • Subscribe to ToC alert
  • Get permissions
  • Recommend to your library

    You must fill out fields marked with: *

    Librarian details
    Your details
    Why are you recommending this title?
    Select reason:
     
    Behaviour — Recommend this title to your library
  • Export citations
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation