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Zur Psychologie Der Begegnung Zwischen Tieren

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[1. This study tries to describe on a phenomenological basis the encounter-behaviour by confrontation of animals of the same and of other species. In 814 encounters of 244 different species of animals in three Zoological Gardens the taking up or re-taking (after separation) of inter-individual relations was observed. Some typical minutes of such encounters are given in the text. At the end of some chapters summarising discussions were inserted. 2. Encounter means control. The following possibilities of control were found: 1. acoustic, 2. optical, 3. olfactory, 4. tactical, 5. olfactory-tactical control. 3. The olfactory control is subdivided into a direct and an indirect control: either it refers to certain body-parts of the partner or to indirect signs of it in the environment (e.g. defaecation or markings deposited on various places). 4. According to the body-parts engaged in the direct control, this control was described to be naso-nasal, naso-genital, naso-anal etc. For some animals a certain number of contact points were numbered in the sequence of their functioning. There exist some connections between the morphological appearance and the privileged spots of contact. 5. Among the manifestations of expression special attention was paid to the ears. The analysis of a film produced in the Basel Zoological Garden on the encounter-behaviour of Rhinoceros unicornis shows some typical forms of behaviour. 6. Fully described were the behaviour patterns in the territory, above all in connection with demarcation. Somé species distinguished themselves by intense relations to excrement and urine. 7. Encounters among animals of the same species. Ungulates and predatory animals showed a variety of all kinds of contact. Less ambiguous appeared the circumstances for the primates: here the direct control - also for the marking Prosimia - was a rule. The latter control chiefly in the naso-nasal way, while Monkeys preponderantly prefer the genital pole. Thus, the head of the Monkeys gains a high signification as a means of the optical control: it comes to be the carrier of expression, the highest amongst the social instruments. 8. In a second chapter the behaviour of some selected species are described encountering animals of other - partly rather remote - species, as. e.g. Mammals and Tortoises. Here it proved that Deer under the guidance of a female reacted as a closed formation upon a Tortoise or a Goat in their territory., 1. This study tries to describe on a phenomenological basis the encounter-behaviour by confrontation of animals of the same and of other species. In 814 encounters of 244 different species of animals in three Zoological Gardens the taking up or re-taking (after separation) of inter-individual relations was observed. Some typical minutes of such encounters are given in the text. At the end of some chapters summarising discussions were inserted. 2. Encounter means control. The following possibilities of control were found: 1. acoustic, 2. optical, 3. olfactory, 4. tactical, 5. olfactory-tactical control. 3. The olfactory control is subdivided into a direct and an indirect control: either it refers to certain body-parts of the partner or to indirect signs of it in the environment (e.g. defaecation or markings deposited on various places). 4. According to the body-parts engaged in the direct control, this control was described to be naso-nasal, naso-genital, naso-anal etc. For some animals a certain number of contact points were numbered in the sequence of their functioning. There exist some connections between the morphological appearance and the privileged spots of contact. 5. Among the manifestations of expression special attention was paid to the ears. The analysis of a film produced in the Basel Zoological Garden on the encounter-behaviour of Rhinoceros unicornis shows some typical forms of behaviour. 6. Fully described were the behaviour patterns in the territory, above all in connection with demarcation. Somé species distinguished themselves by intense relations to excrement and urine. 7. Encounters among animals of the same species. Ungulates and predatory animals showed a variety of all kinds of contact. Less ambiguous appeared the circumstances for the primates: here the direct control - also for the marking Prosimia - was a rule. The latter control chiefly in the naso-nasal way, while Monkeys preponderantly prefer the genital pole. Thus, the head of the Monkeys gains a high signification as a means of the optical control: it comes to be the carrier of expression, the highest amongst the social instruments. 8. In a second chapter the behaviour of some selected species are described encountering animals of other - partly rather remote - species, as. e.g. Mammals and Tortoises. Here it proved that Deer under the guidance of a female reacted as a closed formation upon a Tortoise or a Goat in their territory.]

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/content/journals/10.1163/156853956x00101
1956-01-01
2015-05-06

Affiliations: 1: Zoologischer Garten, Basel

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