Cookies Policy

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

Socio-Ecological Implications of Individual Differences in Wolf Litters : a Developmental and Evolutionary Perspective

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Buy this article

$30.00+ Tax (if applicable)
Add to Favorites

image of Behaviour

Individual differences in response to a number of animate and inanimate moving and non-moving stimuli were studied in 18 wolf cubs from four litters. Social rank was closely correlated with reactivity, exploratory behavior and prey-killing ability. A wide range of variability in test scores was found in all litters. It is proposed that pack integration and coordination of activities is enhanced by intra-specific socialization, social facilitation, and leader-follower relationships between subordinates and the more exploratory alpha individual. The evolutionary advantages of selection for individual differences or behavioral polymorphism within litters are discussed and inferences drawn for significance in pack formation. This hypothesis is supported by contrasting evidence of greater behavioral homogeneity in less social canids, where intra-specific aggression and mutual proximity intolerance prevents pack formation and leads to dispersal of the litter.


Article metrics loading...


Affiliations: 1: Department of Psychology, Washington University, St. Louis, Mo., U.S.A.


Can't access your account?
  • Tools

  • Add to Favorites
  • Printable version
  • Email this page
  • Subscribe to email alerts
  • Get permissions
  • Recommend to your library

    You must fill out fields marked with: *

    Librarian details
    Your details
    Why are you recommending this title?
    Select reason:
    Behaviour — Recommend this title to your library

    Thank you

    Your recommendation has been sent to your librarian.

  • Export citations
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation