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Optimisation of Nut-Cracking With Natural Hammers By Wild Chimpanzees

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The chimpanzees of the Tai National Park, Ivory Coast, use sticks and stones to open 5 different species of nuts. In spite of an unfavourable availability of the material in the forest, the animals choose their tools adaptively. For cracking harder nuts, they use harder and heavier tools and transport tools more often and from farther away. Some aspects of the evolution of tool-use in primates are discussed.


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Affiliations: 1: (Department of Ethology and Wildlife Research, University of Zurich, Switzerland


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