Cookies Policy
Cookie Policy

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

Use of Two Singing Modes By Hooded Warblers as Adaptations for Signalling

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Buy this article

$30.00+ Tax (if applicable)
Add to Favorites

image of Behaviour

Hooded warblers Wilsonia citrina use two modes of singing, repeat mode (one pattern sung repeatedly) and mixed mode (2-4 other patterns sung in irregular sequence). Intensive focal-individual sampling of 14 males documented the use of these modes of singing throughout the nesting cycle. Males of different ages (first breeding season or later) did not differ in use of the two modes. Time spent singing in repeat mode decreased markedly after acquiring a mate, but time spent singing mixed mode did not change significantly across stages of the nesting cycle. Males sang more when their neighbors sang at a distance of 25 m or more. Repeat mode increased in this situation before a male acquired a mate, while mixed mode increased afterwards. Near a neighbor (within 25 m), males avoided use of repeat mode. Nearby females before the onset of incubation evoked increased use of repeat mode. More distant, calling females elicited little response before incubation, but thereafter calling females tended to suppress all singing. Males used mixed mode proportionately more in locations nearer neighbors. There were no indications that variation in singing influenced the dates on which males acquired mates. Unmated males late in the breeding season sang persistently in repeat mode, even more than eventually mated males had early in the season before they acquired mates. These results provide support, with some reservations, for three hypotheses for the evolution of distinct modes of singing: (1) specializations for male and female listeners; (2) specializations for indicating conditional behavioral tendencies; and (3) specializations for communication in low- and high-noise situations. These hypotheses are not mutually exclusive, and all three in combination might offer the strongest explanation for the evolution of distinct singing modes in this species and other paruline warblers.


Article metrics loading...


Affiliations: 1: Department of Biology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3280, U.S.A.


Can't access your account?
  • Tools

  • Add to Favorites
  • Printable version
  • Email this page
  • Create email alert
  • Get permissions
  • Recommend to your library

    You must fill out fields marked with: *

    Librarian details
    Your details
    Why are you recommending this title?
    Select reason:
    Behaviour — Recommend this title to your library

    Thank you

    Your recommendation has been sent to your librarian.

  • Export citations
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation