Cookies Policy
X

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

How males form coalitions against group rivals and the Pandit/van Schaik coalition model

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

Access this article

+ Tax (if applicable)
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

image of Behaviour

In group living animals, there is pronounced variation in the formation and function of cooperation between males via coalitionary aggression. Pandit, van Schaik and colleagues developed a mathematical model to predict the evolution of different coalition types in group-living male primates, the PvS model. Coalitions are classified into five types dependent on the ranks of the participants and the function of the aggression. The main factor determining the coalition types expected to evolve is contest potential, an estimate of female monopolisability by individual males. We examined the model using groups of Assamese (Macaca assamensis) and Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) to gain a full range of contest potentials. We observed, across groups, 393 coalitions during 3645 h of data collection. We measured contest potential on a species-specific basis dependent on the information males can infer about female reproductive state. By examining coalition formation in different populations and species, but also in the same groups over time, we showed the strengths and weaknesses of the PvS model. We discuss why our results do not fully fit the model’s predictions, including differing costs/benefits of coalition formation, such as delayed benefits via increased status, making rank-changing coalitions viable at mid–low contest potential. Alternative factors not considered by the model include the effect of male social bonds on coalition partner choice and the effect of female mate-choice on coalition target selection. Finally, we suggest possible improvements to the model and provide information on how best to test the current predictions of the PvS model.

Affiliations: 1: aPrimate Social Evolution Group, Courant Research Centre Evolution of Social Behaviour, Georg-August University Göttingen, Kellnerweg 6, 37077 Göttingen, Germany; 2: bCourant Research Centre Evolution of Social Behaviour, Georg-August University Göttingen, Kellnerweg 6, 37077 Göttingen, Germany

10.1163/1568539X-00003166
/content/journals/10.1163/1568539x-00003166
dcterms_title,pub_keyword,dcterms_description,pub_author
10
5
Loading
Loading

Full text loading...

/content/journals/10.1163/1568539x-00003166
Loading

Data & Media loading...

1. Alberts S. , Buchan J. , Altmann J. ( 2006). "Sexual selection in wild baboons: from mating opportunities to paternity success". — Anim. Behav. Vol 72: 1177- 1196. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2006.05.001
2. Altmann J. ( 1974). "Observational study of behavior: sampling methods". — Behaviour Vol 49: 227- 267. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/156853974X00534
3. Altmann S.A. ( 1962). "A field study of the sociobiology of the rhesus monkey, Macaca mulatta ". — Ann. NY Acad. Sci. Vol 102: 338- 435. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1962.tb13650.x
4. Bercovitch F.B. ( 1988). "Coalitions, cooperation and reproductive tactics among adult male baboons". — Anim. Behav. Vol 36: 1198- 1209. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0003-3472(88)80079-4
5. Berghänel A. , Ostner J. , Schröder U. , Schülke O. ( 2011a). "Social bonds predict future cooperation in male Barbary macaques, Macaca sylvanus ". — Anim. Behav. Vol 81: 1109- 1116. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2011.02.009
6. Berghänel A. , Ostner J. , Schülke O. ( 2011b). "Coalitions destabilize dyadic dominance relationships in male Barbary macaques ( Macaca sylvanus)". — Behaviour Vol 148: 1257. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/000579511X600628
7. Berghänel A. , Schülke O. , Ostner J. ( 2010). "Coalition formation among Barbary macaque males: the influence of scramble competition". — Anim. Behav. Vol 80: 675- 682. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2010.07.002
8. Berman C. , Ionica C. , Li J. ( 2007). "Supportive and tolerant relationships among male Tibetan macaques at Huangshan, China". — Behaviour Vol 144: 631- 661. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/156853907781347790
9. Bissonnette A. ( 2009). Testing a model on coalitions in Barbary macaque males ( Macaca sylvanus). — PhD Thesis, University of Zurich, Zurich.
10. Bissonnette A. , Bischofberger N. , van Schaik C. ( 2011). "Mating skew in Barbary macaque males: the role of female mating synchrony, female behavior, and male–male coalitions". — Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. Vol 65: 167- 182. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00265-010-1023-z
11. Bissonnette A. , de Vries H. , van Schaik C.P. ( 2009a). "Coalitions in male Barbary macaques, Macaca sylvanus: strength, success and rules of thumb". — Anim. Behav. Vol 78: 329- 335. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2009.05.010
12. Bissonnette A. , Lange E. , Van Schaik C.P. ( 2009b). "A cardinal measure of competitive ability in Barbary macaque males ( Macaca sylvanus)". — Ethology Vol 115: 671- 681. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0310.2009.01652.x
13. Boehm C. ( 1993). "Cooperation and prosocial behaviour". — Am. Anthropol. Vol 95: 455- 456. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/aa.1993.95.2.02a00190
14. Boehm C. ( 1999). Hierarchy in the forest — the evolution of egalitarian behavior. — Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.
15. Brauch K. , Hodges K. , Engelhardt A. , Fuhrmann K. , Shaw E. , Heistermann M. ( 2008). "Sex-specific reproductive behaviours and paternity in free-ranging Barbary macaques ( Macaca sylvanus)". — Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. Vol 62: 1453- 1466. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00265-008-0575-7
16. Brauch K. , Pfefferle D. , Hodges K. , Möhle U. , Fischer J. , Heistermann M. ( 2007). "Female sexual behavior and sexual swelling size as potential cues for males to discern the female fertile phase in free-ranging Barbary macaques ( Macaca sylvanus) of Gibraltar". — Horm. Behav. Vol 52: 375- 383. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yhbeh.2007.06.001
17. Broom M. , Koenig A. , Borries C. ( 2009). "Variation in dominance hierarchies among group-living animals: modeling stability and the likelihood of coalitions". — Behav. Ecol. Vol 20: 844- 855. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/beheco/arp069
18. Chapais B. ( 1995). "Alliances as means of competition in primates: evolutionary, developmental and cognitive aspects". — Yb. Phys. Anthropol. Vol 38: 115- 136. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.1330380607
19. Clutton-Brock T.H. , Parker G.A. ( 1992). "Potential reproductive rates and the operation of sexual selection". — Q. Rev. Biol. Vol 67: 437- 456. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/417793
20. Connor R. , Whitehead H. ( 2005). "Alliances II. Rates of encounter during resource utilization: a general model of intrasexual alliance formation in fission–fusion societies". — Anim. Behav. Vol 69: 127- 132. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2004.02.022
21. Connor R.C. , Heithaus M.R. , Barre L.M. ( 1999). "Superalliance of bottlenose dolphins". — Nature Vol 397: 571- 572. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/17501
22. de Villiers M.S. , Richardson P.R.K. , van Jaarsveld A.S. ( 2003). "Patterns of coalition formation and spatial association in a social carnivore, the African wild dog ( Lycaon pictus)". — J. Zool. Vol 260: 377- 389. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0952836903003832
23. de Vries H. , Stevens J. , Vervaecke H. ( 2006). "Measuring and testing the steepness of dominance hierarchies". — Anim. Behav. Vol 71: 585- 592. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2005.05.015
24. de Waal F.B.M. , Harcourt A.H. ( 1992). "Coalitions and alliances: a history of ethological research". — In: Coalitions and alliances in humans and other animals( Harcourt A.H. , de Waal F.B.M. , eds). Oxford University Press, Oxford, p.  1- 19.
25. Duffy K.G. , Wrangham R.W. , Silk J.B. ( 2007). "Male chimpanzees exchange political support for mating opportunities". — Curr. Biol. Vol 17: R586- R587. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2007.06.001
26. Dugatkin L.A. ( 1998). "Breaking up fights between others: a model of intervention behaviour". — Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B: Biol. Sci. Vol 265: 433- 437. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.1998.0313
27. Engelhardt A. , Hodges J. , Heistermann M. ( 2007). "Post-conception mating in wild long-tailed macaques ( Macaca fascicularis): characterization, endocrine correlates and functional significance". — Horm. Behav. Vol 51: 3- 10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yhbeh.2006.06.009
28. Fürtbauer I. , Schülke O. , Heistermann M. , Ostner J. ( 2010). "Reproductive and life history parameters of wild female Assamese macaques ( Macaca assamensis)". — Int. J. Primatol. Vol 31: 501- 517. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10764-010-9409-3
29. Fürtbauer I. , Heistermann M. , Schülke O. , Ostner J. ( 2011a). "Concealed fertility and extended female sexuality in a non-Human primate ( Macaca assamensis)". — PLoS ONE Vol 6: e23105.
30. Fürtbauer I. , Mundry R. , Heistermann M. , Schülke O. , Ostner J. ( 2011b). "You mate, I mate: macaque females synchronize sex not cycles". — PLoS ONE Vol 6: e26144.
31. Gilby I. , Brent L.N. , Wroblewski E. , Rudicell R. , Hahn B. , Goodall J. , Pusey A. ( 2013). "Fitness benefits of coalitionary aggression in male chimpanzees". — Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. Vol 67: 373- 381. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00265-012-1457-6
32. Gogarten J. , Koenig A. ( 2013). "Reproductive seasonality is a poor predictor of receptive synchrony and male reproductive skew among nonhuman primates". — Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. Vol 67: 123- 134. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00265-012-1432-2
33. Gordon T. , Gust D. , Busse C. , Wilson M. ( 1991). "Hormones and sexual behavior associated with postconception perineal swelling in the sooty mangabey ( Cercocebus torquatus atys)". — Int. J. Primatol. Vol 12: 585- 597. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02547671
34. Gust D. ( 1994). "Alpha-male sooty mangabeys differentiate between females’ fertile and their postconception maximal swellings". — Int. J. Primatol. Vol 15: 289- 301. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02735278
35. Heistermann M. , Ziegler T. , van Schaik C.P. , Launhardt K. , Winkler P. , Hodges J.K. ( 2001). "Loss of oestrus, concealed ovulation and paternity confusion in free-ranging Hanuman langurs". — Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B: Biol. Sci. Vol 268: 2445- 2451. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2001.1833
36. Heistermann M. , Brauch K. , Möhle U. , Pfefferle D. , Dittami J. , Hodges K. ( 2008). "Female ovarian cycle phase affects the timing of male sexual activity in free-ranging Barbary macaques ( Macaca sylvanus) of Gibraltar". — Am. J. Primatol. Vol 70: 44- 53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.20455
37. Henkel S. , Heistermann M. , Fischer J. ( 2010). "Infants as costly social tools in male Barbary macaque networks". — Anim. Behav. Vol 79: 1199- 1204. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2010.02.005
38. Henzi S.P. , Clarke P.M.R. , van Schaik C.P. , Pradhan G.R. , Barrett L. ( 2010). "Infanticide and reproductive restraint in a polygynous social mammal". — Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA Vol 107: 2130- 2135. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0913294107
39. Higham J.P. , Maestripieri D. ( 2010). "Revolutionary coalitions in male rhesus macaques". — Behaviour Vol 147: 1889- 1908. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/000579510X539709
40. Janson C. ( 1984). "Female choice and mating system of the brown capuchin monkey Cebus apella(primates: Cebidae)". — Z. Tierpsychol. Vol 65: 177- 200.
41. Jennings D.J. , Carlin C.M. , Gammell M.P. ( 2009). "A winner effect supports third-party intervention behaviour during fallow deer, Dama dama, fights". — Anim. Behav. Vol 77: 343- 348. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2008.10.006
42. Johnstone R.A. , Dugatkin L.A. ( 2000). "Coalition formation in animals and the nature of winner and loser effects". — Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B: Biol. Sci. Vol 267: 17- 21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2000.0960
43. Koenig A. , Borries C. , Suarez S. , Kreetiyutanont K. , Prabnasuk J. ( 2004). "Socio-ecology of Phayre’s leaf monkeys ( Trachypithecus phayrei) at Phu Khieo Wildlife Sanctuary". — J. Wildl. Thailand Vol 12: 150- 163.
44. Kuester J. , Paul A. ( 1984). "Female reproductive characteristics in semifree-ranging Barbary macaques ( Macaca sylvanusL. 1758)". — Folia Primatol. Vol 43: 69- 83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000156173
45. Kuester J. , Paul A. ( 1992). "Influence of male competition and female mate choice on male mating success in Barbary macaques ( Macaca sylvanus)". — Behaviour Vol 120: 192- 216. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/156853992X00606
46. Kutsukake N. , Nunn C. ( 2006). "Comparative tests of reproductive skew in male primates: the roles of demographic factors and incomplete control". — Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. Vol 60: 695- 706. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00265-006-0213-1
47. Langergraber K. , Mitani J. , Vigilant L. ( 2007). "The limited impact of kinship on cooperation in wild chimpanzees". — Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA Vol 104: 7786- 7790. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0611449104
48. Leiva D. , de Vries H. ( 2011). Testing steepness of dominance hierarchies. — In: R package version 0.2, available online at .
49. Lu A. , Beehner J.C. , Czekala N.M. , Borries C. ( 2012). "Juggling priorities: female mating tactics in Phayre’s leaf monkeys". — Am. J. Primatol. Vol 74: 471- 481. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.22004
50. Maestripieri D. , Roney J. ( 2005). "Primate copulation calls and postcopulatory female choice". — Behav. Ecol. Vol 16: 106- 113. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/beheco/arh120
51. Mitani J. ( 2009). "Male chimpanzees form enduring and equtable social bonds". — Anim. Behav. Vol 77: 633- 640. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2008.11.021
52. Mitani J.C. ( 2006). "Reciprocal exchange in chimpanzees and other primates". — In: Cooperation in primates and humans( Kappeler P. , van Schaik C. , eds). Springer, Heidelberg, p.  107- 120. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/3-540-28277-7_6
53. Nishida T. ( 1983). "Alpha status and agonsitic alliance in wild chimpanzees". — Primates Vol 24: 318- 336. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02381978
54. Noë R. ( 1990). "A veto game played by baboons: a challenge to the use of the Prisoner’s Dilemma as a paradigm for reciprocity and cooperation". — Anim. Behav. Vol 39: 78- 90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0003-3472(05)80728-6
55. Noë R. ( 1994). "A model of coalition formation among male baboons with fighting ability as the crucial parameter". — Anim. Behav. Vol 47: 211- 213. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/anbe.1994.1024
56. Noë R. , Sluijter A.A. ( 1990). "Reproductive tactics of male savanna baboons". — Behaviour Vol 113: 117- 169. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/156853990X00455
57. Noë R. , Sluijter A.A. ( 1995). "Which adult male savanna baboons form coalitions?"— Int. J. Primatol. Vol 16: 77- 105. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02700154
58. Nunn C.L. ( 1999). "The number of males in primate groups: a comparative test of the socioecological model". — Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. Vol 46: 1- 13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s002650050586
59. Ostner J. , Schülke O. ( 2014). "The evolution of social bonds in primate males". — Behaviour Vol 151: 871- 906. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/1568539X-00003191
60. Ostner J. , Nunn C.L. , Schülke O. ( 2008). "Female reproductive synchrony predicts skewed paternity across primates". — Behav. Ecol. Vol 19: 1150- 1158. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/beheco/arn093
61. Ostner J. , Heistermann M. , Schülke O. ( 2011). "Male competition and its hormonal correlates in Assamese macaques ( Macaca assamensis)". — Horm. Behav. Vol 59: 105- 113. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yhbeh.2010.10.017
62. Packer C. ( 1979). "Male dominance and reproductive activity in Papio anubis ". — Anim. Behav. Vol 27: 37- 45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0003-3472(79)90127-1
63. Pandit S. , van Schaik C. ( 2003). "A model for leveling coalitions among primate males: toward a theory of egalitarianism". — Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. Vol 55: 161- 168. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00265-003-0692-2
64. Paul A. , Kuester J. , Arnemann J. ( 1996). "The sociobiology of male–infant interactions in barbary macaques, Macaca sylvanus ". — Anim. Behav. Vol 51: 155- 170. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/anbe.1996.0013
65. R Development Core Team( 2012). R: a language and environment for statistical computing. — R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, available online at .
66. Schülke O. , Bhagavatula J. , Vigilant L. , Ostner J. ( 2010). "Social bonds enhance reproductive success in male macaques". — Curr. Biol. Vol 220: 2207- 2210. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2010.10.058
67. Silk J.B. ( 2002). "Practice random acts of aggression and senseless acts of intimidation: the logic of status contests in social groups". — Evol. Anthropol. Vol 11: 221- 225. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/evan.10038
68. Small M. ( 1990). "Promiscuity in Barbary Macaques ( Macaca sylvanus)". — Am. J. Primatol. Vol 20: 267- 282. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.1350200403
69. Smith J.E. , Van Horn R.C. , Powning K.S. , Cole A.R. , Graham K.E. , Memenis S.K. , Holekamp K.E. ( 2010). "Evolutionary forces favoring intragroup coalitions among spotted hyenas and other animals". — Behav. Ecol. Vol 21: 284- 303. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/beheco/arp181
70. Stamatopoulos G. , Sengupta A. , Vogel E. , Janson C. ( 2009). "A game-theoretic model of coalition formation among primates". — J. Bioecon. Vol 11: 165- 183. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10818-009-9060-2
71. Thierry B. , Singh M. , Kaumanns W. ( 2004). Macaque societies — a model for the study of social organization. — Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
72. Trivers R.L. ( 1972). "Parental investment and sexual selection". — In: Sexual selection and the descent of man, 1871–1971( Campbell B. , ed.). Heinemann, London, p.  136- 179.
73. van Hooff J.A.R.A.M. , van Schaik C.P. ( 1992). "Cooperation in competition: the ecology of primate bonds". — In: Coalitions and alliances in humans and other animals( Harcourt A.H. , de Waal F.B.M. , eds). Oxford University Press, Oxford, p.  357- 389.
74. van Schaik C. , Pandit S. , Vogel E. ( 2004). "A model for within-group coalitionary aggression among males". — Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. Vol 57: 101- 109. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00265-004-0818-1
75. van Schaik C. , Pandit S. , Vogel E. ( 2006). "Toward a general model for male–male coalitions in primate groups". — In: Cooperation in primates and humans( Kappeler P. , van Schaik C. , eds). Springer, Heidelberg, p.  151- 172. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/3-540-28277-7_9
76. Whitehead H. , Connor R. ( 2005). "Alliances I. How large should alliances be?"— Anim. Behav. Vol 69: 117- 126. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2004.02.021
77. Widdig A. , Streich W.J. , Tembrock G. ( 2000). "Coalition formation among male Barbary macaques ( Macaca sylvanus)". — Am. J. Primatol. Vol 50: 37- 51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1098-2345(200001)50:1<37::AID-AJP4>3.0.CO;2-3
78. Wroblewski E.E. , Murray C.M. , Keele B.F. , Schumacher-Stankey J.C. , Hahn B.H. , Pusey A.E. ( 2009). "Male dominance rank and reproductive success in chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii ". — Anim. Behav. Vol 77: 873- 885. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2008.12.014
79. Young C. , Hähndel S. , Majolo B. , Schülke O. , Ostner J. ( 2013a). "Male coalitions and female behaviour affect male mating success independent of dominance rank and female receptive synchrony in wild Barbary macaques". — Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. Vol 67: 1665- 1677. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00265-013-1577-7
80. Young C. , Majolo B. , Heistermann M. , Schülke O. , Ostner J. ( 2013b). "Male mating behaviour in relation to female sexual swellings, socio-sexual behaviour and hormonal changes in wild Barbary macaques". — Horm. Behav. Vol 63: 32- 39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yhbeh.2012.11.004
81. Zabel C. , Glickman S. , Frank L. , Woodmansee K. , Keppel G. ( 1992). "Coalition formation in a colony of prepubertal spotted hyaenas". — In: Coalitions and alliances in humans and other animals( Harcourt A.H. , de Waal F.B.M. , eds). Oxford University Press, Oxford, p.  113- 136.
http://brill.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1163/1568539x-00003166
Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1163/1568539x-00003166
2014-05-15
2017-09-19

Sign-in

Can't access your account?
  • Tools

  • Add to Favorites
  • Printable version
  • Email this page
  • Subscribe to ToC alert
  • Get permissions
  • Recommend to your library

    You must fill out fields marked with: *

    Librarian details
    Your details
    Why are you recommending this title?
    Select reason:
     
    Behaviour — Recommend this title to your library
  • Export citations
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation