Cookies Policy
X

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

Socially tolerant relationships among wild male moor macaques (Macaca maura)

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

Access this article

+ Tax (if applicable)
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

image of Behaviour

Researchers are increasingly documenting the existence of social tolerance and affiliative behavior among primate males, including in male-dispersing species. We investigated the nature of male social relationships in a relatively understudied macaque species, the moor macaque (Macaca maura), in order to expand our knowledge of male social relationships in male dispersing primates. The classification of social styles for primates rests largely on data about female social relationships. Therefore, by providing data on male–male relationships, we also contribute to our understanding of social style variation within the genus Macaca. Observations were conducted on a wild yet well-habituated group in Bantimurung-Bulusaraung National Park in South Sulawesi, Indonesia. We collected focal animal and ad libitum data on four adult males, recording social behavior during 209 contact hours over two field seasons in 2010 and 2011. The adult male moor macaques in this study did not interact frequently. Interactions that did occur more frequently involved affiliation rather than aggression, with greetings being the most common form of interaction. Greetings occurred in a predominately neutral context and were more common between specific males with uncertain or ambiguous dominance relationships and low-quality relationships, but the initiation of greetings was not linked to dominance rank. These results suggest that greetings enable males to communicate information about their willingness to invest in the relationship, representing one way for adult males to ease social tension and build social bonds. To expand our understanding of social style variation in Macaca, we compared our data to those published for other macaque taxa. In the present study, the observed pattern of aggression (i.e., low rate, low to moderate intensity and high symmetry) was consistent with the species’ social style classification as highly tolerant. The relatively low grooming rate and low percentage of counteraggression, however, were more consistent with the social style of less tolerant taxa. Further research is needed to determine what factors explain this pattern of social tolerance among male moor macaques.

Affiliations: 1: aDepartment of Anthropology, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA, USA; 2: bDepartment of Forestry, Hasanuddin University (UNHAS), Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia

10.1163/1568539X-00003182
/content/journals/10.1163/1568539x-00003182
dcterms_title,pub_keyword,dcterms_description,pub_author
10
5
Loading
Loading

Full text loading...

/content/journals/10.1163/1568539x-00003182
Loading

Data & Media loading...

1. Altmann J. ( 1974). "Observational study of behavior: sampling methods". — Behaviour Vol 49: 227- 267. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/156853974X00534
2. Appleby M.C. ( 1983). "The probability of linearity in hierarchies". — Anim. Behav. Vol 31: 600- 608. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0003-3472(83)80084-0
3. Bercovitch F.B. ( 2000). "Behavioural ecology and socioendocrinology of reproductive maturation of cercopithecine monkeys". — In: Old World monkeys( Whitehead P.F. , Jolly C.J. , eds). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, p.  298- 320. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511542589.012
4. Berman C. , Ionica C.S. , Li J. ( 2004). "Dominance style among Macaca thibetanaon Mt. Huangshan, China". — Int. J. Primatol. Vol 25: 1283- 1312. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:IJOP.0000043963.77801.c3
5. Berman C.M. , Ionica C. , Li J. ( 2007). "Supportive and tolerant relationships among male Tibetan macaques at Huangshan, China". — Behaviour Vol 144: 631- 661. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/156853907781347790
6. Bernstein I.S. , Baker S.C. ( 1988). "Activity patterns in a captive group of Celebes black apes ( Macaca nigra)". — Folia Primatol. Vol 51: 61- 75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000156358
7. Bynum E.L. , Kohlhaas A.K. , Pramono A.H. ( 1999). "Conservation status of Sulawesi Macaques". — Trop. Biodivers. Vol 6: 123- 144.
8. Colmenares F. ( 1990). "Greeting behavior in male baboons, I: communication, reciporcity, and symmetry". — Behaviour Vol 113: 81- 116. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/156853990X00446
9. Colmenares F. ( 1991). "Greeting behavior between male baboons: oestrous females, rivaltry and negotiation". — Anim. Behav. Vol 41: 49- 60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0003-3472(05)80502-0
10. Connor R.C. , Capps-Watson J.J. , Sherwin W.B. , Krutzen M. ( 2011). "A new level of complexity on the male alliance networks of Indian Ocean bottlenose dolphins ( Tursiopssp.)". — Biol. Lett. Vol 7: 623- 626. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2010.0852
11. Cooper M.A. , Bernstein I.S. ( 2008). "Evaluating dominance styles in Assamese and Rhesus macaques". — Int. J. Primatol. Vol 29: 225- 243. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10764-008-9236-y
12. de Vries H. , Stevens J.M.G. , Vervaecke H. ( 2006). "Measuring and testing the steepness of dominance hierarchies". — Anim. Behav. Vol 71: 585- 592. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2005.05.015
13. de Waal F.B.M. , Luttrell L.M. ( 1989). "Toward a comparative socioecology of the genus Macaca: different dominance styles in rhesus and stumptail monkeys". — Am. J. Primatol. Vol 19: 83- 109. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.1350190203
14. Dias P.A.D. , Luna E.R. , Espinosa D.C. ( 2008). "The functions of the “greeting ceremony” among male mantled howers ( Alouatta palliata) on Agaltepec Island, Mexico". — Am. J. Primatol. Vol 70: 621- 628. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.20535
15. Duboscq J. , Micheletta J. , Agil M. , Hodges K. , Thierry B. , Engelhardt A. ( 2013). "Social tolerance in wild female crested macaques ( Macaca nigra) in Tangkoko-Batuangus Nature Reserve, Sulawesi, Indonesia". — Am. J. Primatol. Vol 75: 361- 375. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.22114
16. Fooden J. ( 1969). Taxonomy and evolution of the monkeys of Celebes. — Karger, Basel.
17. Gammell M.P. , de Vries H. , Jennings D. , Carlin C.M. , Hayden T. ( 2003). "David’s score: a more appropriate dominance ranking method than Clutton-Brock et al.’s index". — Anim. Behav. Vol 66: 601- 605. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/anbe.2003.2226
18. Gould L. ( 1997). "Intermale affiliative behavior in ringtailed lemurs ( Lemur catta) at the Beza-Mahafaly reserve, Madagascar". — Primates Vol 38: 401- 414. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02385919
19. Grinnell J. , Packer C. , Pusey A.E. ( 1995). "Cooperation in male lions: kinship, reciprocity or mutualism?"— Anim. Behav. Vol 49: 95- 105. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0003-3472(95)80157-X
20. Hill D.A. ( 1994). "Affiliative behavior between adult males of the genus Macaca ". — Behaviour Vol 130: 293- 308. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/156853994X00578
21. Hill D.A. , van Hooff J.A.R.A.M. ( 1994). "Affiliative relationships between males in groups of nonhuman primate: a summary". — Behaviour Vol 130: 143- 149. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/156853994X00497
22. Horiuchi S. ( 2005). "Affiliative relations among male Japanese macaques ( Macaca fuscata yakui) within and outside a troop on Yakushima Island". — Primates Vol 46: 191- 197. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10329-005-0131-2
23. Horiuchi S. ( 2007). "Social relationships of male Japanese macaques ( Macaca fuscata) in different habitats: a comparison between Yakushima island and Shimokita peninsula populations". — Anthropol. Sci. Vol 115: 63- 65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1537/ase.051227
24. IUCN( 2010). IUCN red list of threatened species. — Version 2012.2. Downloaded on 22 April 2013.
25. Jack K.M. ( 2003). "Explaining variation in affiliative relationships among male white-faced capuchins ( Cebus capucinus)". — Folia Primatol. Vol 74: 1- 16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000068390
26. Kutsukake N. ( 2010). "Lost in translation: field Primatol., culture, and interdisciplinary approaches". — In: Centralizing fieldwork: critical perspectives from primatological, biological and social anthropology( MacClancey J. , Fuentes A. , eds). Berghahn Books, New York, NY, p.  104- 120.
27. Kutsukake N. , Hasegawa T. ( 2005). "Dominance turnover between an alpha and a beta male and dynamics of social relationships in Japanese macaques". — Int. J. Primatol. Vol 26: 775- 800. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10764-005-5308-4
28. Langergraber K.E. , Mitani J.C. , Vigilant L. ( 2007). "The limited impact of kinship on cooperation in wild chimpanzees". — Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA Vol 104: 7786- 7790. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0611449104
29. Lin T.J. , Agoramoorthy G. , Huang C.C. , Hsu M.J. ( 2008). "Effects of trop size on social relations among male Formosan macaques, Macaca cyclopis ". — Zool. Stud. Vol 47: 237- 246.
30. Lynch Alfaro J. ( 2008). "Scream-embrace displays in wild black-horned capuchin monkeys". — Am. J. Primatol. Vol 70: 551- 559. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.20528
31. Maestripieri D. ( 1996). "Gestural communication and its cogntive implications in pigtailed macaques ( Macaca nemestrina)". — Behaviour Vol 133: 997- 1022. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/156853996X00576
32. Maestripieri D. ( 1997). "Gestural communication in macaques: usage and meaning of nonvocal signals". — Evol. Commun. Vol 1: 193- 222. http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/eoc.1.2.03mae
33. Matheson M.D. , Johnson J.S. , Feuberstein J. ( 1996). "Male reunion displays in tufted capuchin monkeys ( Cebus apella)". — Am. J. Primatol. Vol 40: 183- 188. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1098-2345(1996)40:2<183::AID-AJP5>3.0.CO;2-U
34. Matsumura S. ( 1991). A preliminary report of the ecology and social behavior of moor macaques ( Macaca maurus) in Sulawesi, Indonesia. — Kyoto University Overseas Research Report of Studies on Asian Nonhuman Primates 8: 27-41.
35. Matsumura S. ( 1996). "Postconflict affiliative contacts between former opponents among wild moor macaques ( Macaca maurus)". — Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. Vol 38: 211- 219.
36. Matsumura S. ( 1998). "Relaxed dominance relations among female moor macaques ( Macaca maurus) in their natural habitat, South Sulawesi, Indonesia". — Folia Primatol. Vol 69: 346- 356. http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000021650
37. Mitani J.C. ( 2009). "Male chimpanzees form enduring and equitable social bonds". — Anim. Behav. Vol 77: 633- 640. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2008.11.021
38. Mitchell C.L. ( 1994). "Migration alliances and coalitions among adult male South Am. squirrel monkeys ( Saimiri sciureus)". — Behaviour Vol 130: 169- 190. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/156853994X00514
39. Neumann C. , Assahad G. , Hammerschmidt K. , Perwitasari-Farajallah D. , Engelhardt A. ( 2010). "Loud calls in male crested macaques, Macaca nigra: a signal of dominance in a tolerant species". — Anim. Behav. Vol 79: 187- 193. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2009.10.026
40. Okamoto K. , Matsumura S. , Watanabe K. ( 2000). "Life history and demography of wild moor macaques ( Macaca maurus): summary of ten years of observations". — Am. J. Primatol. Vol 52: 1- 11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1098-2345(200009)52:1<1::AID-AJP1>3.0.CO;2-F
41. Perry S. ( 1998). "Male–male social relationships in wild white-faced capuchins, Cebus capucinus ". — Behaviour Vol 135: 139- 172. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/156853998793066384
42. Petit O. , Thierry B. ( 1992). "Affiliative function of the silent-bared teeth display in moor macaques ( Macaca maurus): further evidence for the special status of Sulawesi macaques". — Int. J. Primatol. Vol 13: 97- 105. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02547729
43. Preuschoft S. , Paul A. ( 2000). "Dominance, egalitarianism, and stalemate: an experimental approach to male–male competition in Barbary macaques". — In: Primate males( Kappeler P.M. , ed.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, p.  205- 217.
44. Reed C. , O’Brien T.G. , Kinnaird M.F. ( 1997). "Male social behavior and dominance in the Sulawesi crested black macaque ( Macaca nigra)". — Int. J. Primatol. Vol 18: 247- 260. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1026376720249
45. Richter C. , Mevis L. , Malaivijitnond S. , Schulke O. , Ostner J. ( 2009). "Social relationships in free-ranging male Macaca arctoides ". — Int. J. Primatol. Vol 30: 625- 642. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10764-009-9364-z
46. Riley E.P. ( 2010a). "Male–male affiliation in Sulawesi Tonkean macaques". — In: Indonesian primates( Gursky-Doyen S. , Supriatna J. , eds). Springer, New York, NY, p.  257- 268. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-1560-3_15
47. Riley E.P. ( 2010b). "The endemic seven: four decades of research on the Sulawesi macaques". — Evol. Anthropol. Vol 19: 22- 36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/evan.20246
48. Romero C. , Castellanos M.A. ( 2010). "Dominance relationships among hamadrayas baboons ( Papio hamadrayas)". — J. Ethol. Vol 28: 113- 121.
49. Sagnotti C. ( 2013). Diet preference and habitat use in relation to reproductive states in females of a wild group of Macaca maurainhabiting Karaenta forest in South Sulawesi. — M.A. thesis, Hasanuddin University, Makassar.
50. Schaffner C.M. , Slater K. , Aureli F. ( 2012). "Age related variation in male–male relationships in wild spider monkeys ( Ateles geoffroyi yucatanensis)". — Primates Vol 53: 49- 56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10329-011-0271-5
51. Schülke O. , Bhagavatula J. , Vigilant L. , Ostner J. ( 2010). "Social bonds enhance reproductive success in male macaques". — Curr. Biol. Vol 20: 2207- 2210. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2010.10.058
52. Silk J.B. ( 1994). "Social relationships of male bonnet macaques: male bonding in a matrilineal society". — Behaviour Vol 130: 271- 291. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/156853994X00569
53. Singh M. , Jeyaraj T. , Prashanth U. , Kaumanns W. ( 2011). "Male–male relationships in lion-tailed macaques ( Macaca silenus) and bonnet macaques ( Macaca radiata)". — Int. J. Primatol. Vol 32: 167- 176. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10764-010-9448-9
54. Singh M. , Singh M. , Sharma A.K. , Krishna B.A. ( 2003). "Methodological considerations in measurement of dominance in primates". — Curr. Sci. Vol 84: 709- 713.
55. Smuts B.B. , Watanabe J.M. ( 1990). "Social relationships and ritualized greeints in adult male baboons ( Papio cynocephalus anubis)". — Int. J. Primatol. Vol 11: 147- 172. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02192786
56. Strier K.B. , Dib L.T. , Figueira J.E.C. ( 2002). "Social dynamics of male muriquis ( Brachyteles arachnoides hypoxanthus)". — Behaviour Vol 139: 315- 342. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/156853902760102690
57. Takahashi H. , Furuichi T. ( 1998). "Comparative study of grooming relationships among wild Japanese macaques in Kinkazan A Troop and Yakushima M troop". — Primates Vol 39: 365- 374. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02573084
58. Thierry B. ( 1984). "Clasping behavior in Macaca tonkeana ". — Behaviour Vol 89: 1- 28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/156853984X00010
59. Thierry B. ( 1985). "Patterns of agonistic interactions in three species of macaque ( Macaca mulatta, M. fascicularis, M. tonkeana)". — Aggress. Behav. Vol 11: 223- 233. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1098-2337(1985)11:3<223::AID-AB2480110305>3.0.CO;2-A
60. Thierry B. ( 2000). "Covariation of conflict management patterns across macaque species". — In: Natural conflict resolution( Aureli F. , de Waal F.B.M. , eds). University of California Press, Berkeley, CA, p.  106- 128.
61. Thierry B. ( 2007). "Unity in diversity: lessons from macaque societies". — Evol. Anthropol. Vol 16: 224- 238. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/evan.20147
62. Thierry B. , Anderson J.R. , Demaria C. , Desportes C. , Petit O. ( 1994). "Tonkean macaque behavior from the perspective of the evolution of Sulawesi macaques". — In: Current primatology( Roeder J.J. , Thierry B. , Anderson J.R. , Herrenschmidt N. , eds). Universite Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg, p.  103- 117.
63. Thierry B. , Bynum E.L. , Baker S. , Kinnaird M.F. , Matsumura S. , Muroyama Y. , O’Brien T.G. , Petit O. , Watanabe K. ( 2000). "The social repertoire of Sulawesi macaques". — Primat. Res. Vol 16: 203- 226. http://dx.doi.org/10.2354/psj.16.203
64. van Hooff J.A.R.A.M. , van Schaik C.P. ( 1994). "Male bonds: affiliative relationships among nonhuman primate males". — Behaviour Vol 130: 309- 337. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/156853994X00587
65. van Schaik C.P. ( 1989). "The ecology of social relationships amongst female primates". — In: Comparative socioecology( Standen V. , Foley R.A. , eds). Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, p.  195- 218.
66. Wang E. , Milton K. ( 2003). "Intragroup social relationships of male Alouatta palliataon Barro Colorado Island, Republic of Panama". — Int. J. Primatol. Vol 24: 1227- 1243. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:IJOP.0000005989.29238.ce
67. Watanabe K. , Brotoisworo E. ( 1982). Field observation of Sulawesi macaques. — Kyoto University Overseas Research Report on Asian Nonhuman Primates 2: 3-9.
68. Watanabe K. , Matsumura S. ( 1996). "Social organization of moor macaques, Macaca maurus, in the Karaenta nature reserve, South Sulawesi, Indonesia". — In: Variations in the Asian macaques( Shotake T. , Wada K. , eds). Tokai University Press, Tokyo, p.  147- 162.
69. Whitham J.C. , Maestripieri D. ( 2003). "Primate rituals: the function of greetings between male guinea baboons". — Ethology Vol 109: 847- 859. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.0179-1613.2003.00922.x
http://brill.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1163/1568539x-00003182
Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1163/1568539x-00003182
2014-05-15
2017-11-25

Sign-in

Can't access your account?
  • Tools

  • Add to Favorites
  • Printable version
  • Email this page
  • Subscribe to ToC alert
  • Get permissions
  • Recommend to your library

    You must fill out fields marked with: *

    Librarian details
    Your details
    Why are you recommending this title?
    Select reason:
     
    Behaviour — Recommend this title to your library
  • Export citations
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation