Cookies Policy
X

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

Dominance relationships in a group of domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris)

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

Access this article

+ Tax (if applicable)
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

image of Behaviour

We investigated the extent to which dominance relationships, as described for feral dogs and wolves, applied to a group of 24 neutered companion dogs at a dog daycare facility. Similar to other studies of dogs and wolves, we found significant linear dominance hierarchies based on highly unidirectional displays of submission and aggression. Submission was the most frequent, unidirectional and linear type of agonistic behaviour and, therefore, a better indicator of status than aggression or dominance displays. Aggression was low intensity, consisting mainly of ritualized threats with no physical contact, and conflicts involving physical contact were never injurious. Older dogs out-ranked younger dogs, but size was unrelated to dominance rank. Dominance relationships were more often expressed in same-sex dyads than between males and females. The coverage of dominance relationships in the daycare group was low compared to that reported for sexually intact dogs and wolves, which was probably a result of reduced competition due to neutering and other human influences. In many dyads dogs never exchanged agonistic behaviours, but bi-directional relationships were rare, and most dogs formed some dominance relationships with other dogs. Except for their low coverage, muzzle licks met the criteria for a formal display of submission. Our results suggest that dominance remains a robust component of domestic dog behaviour even when humans significantly reduce the potential for resource competition. The possible proximate benefits of dominance relationships for dogs are discussed.

Affiliations: 1: Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, 530 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1043, USA

10.1163/1568539X-00003249
/content/journals/10.1163/1568539x-00003249
dcterms_title,pub_keyword,dcterms_description,pub_author
10
5
Loading
Loading

Full text loading...

/content/journals/10.1163/1568539x-00003249
Loading

Data & Media loading...

1. Abrantes R. ( 1997). Dog language. — Wakan Tanka, Naperville, IL.
2. Altmann J. ( 1974). "Observational study of behaviour: sampling methods". — Behaviour Vol 49: 227- 267. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/156853974X00534
3. Bauer E.B. , Smuts B.B. ( 2007). "Cooperation and competition during dyadic play in domestic dogs". — Anim. Behav. Vol 73: 489- 499. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2006.09.006
4. Beach F.A. ( 1970). "Coital behaviour in dogs: VIII. Social affinity, dominance and sexual preference in the bitch". — Behaviour Vol 36: 131- 148. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/156853970X00088
5. Bekoff M. ( 1974). "Social play in coyotes, wolves and dogs". — Bioscience Vol 24: 225- 230. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1296803
6. Boitani L. , Ciucci P. , Ortolani A. ( 2007). "Behaviour and social ecology of free-ranging dogs". — In: The behavioral biology of dogs( Jensen P. , ed.). CAB International, Wallingford, p.  47- 165.
7. Bonanni R. , Cafazzo S. , Valsecchi P. , Natoli E. ( 2010). "Effect of affiliative and agonistic relationships on leadership behavior in free-ranging dogs". — Anim. Behav. Vol 79: 981- 991. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2010.02.021
8. Bradshaw J.W.S. , Lea A.M. ( 1992). "Dyadic interactions between domestic dogs". — Anthrozoos Vol 5: 245- 253. http://dx.doi.org/10.2752/089279392787011287
9. Bradshaw J.W.S. , Nott H.M.R. ( 1995). "Social and communication behavior of companion dogs". — In: The domestic dog: its evolution, behavior and interactions with people( Serpell J. , ed.). Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, p.  115- 130.
10. Bradshaw J.W.S. , Blackwell E.J. , Casey R.A. ( 2009). "Dominance in dogs: useful construct or bad habit?"— J. Vet. Behav. Vol 3: 176- 177. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jveb.2007.11.002
11. Cafazzo S. , Bonanni R. , Valseechi P. , Natoli E. ( 2014). "Social variables affecting mate preferences, compulation and reproductive outcome in a pack of free-ranging dogs". — PLoS ONE Vol 9: e98594, DOI: . http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0098594
12. Cafazzo S. , Natoli E. , Valsecchi P. ( 2012). "Scent-marking behaviour in a pack of free-ranging domestic dogs". — Ethology Vol 118: 955- 966. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0310.2012.02088.x
13. Cafazzo S. , Valsecchi P. , Bonanni R. , Natoli E. ( 2010). "Dominance in relation to age, sex, and competitive contexts in a group of free-ranging domestic dogs". — Behav. Ecol. Vol 21: 443- 455. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/beheco/arq001
14. Capra A. , Barnard S. , Valesecchi A.C. ( 2011). "Flight, foe, fight! Aggressive interactions between dogs". — J. Vet. Behav. Vol 6: 62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jveb.2010.09.051
15. Carrier L.O. , Cyr A. , Anderson R.E. , Walsh C. ( 2013). "Exploring the dog park: relationships between social behaviours, personality and cortisol in companion animals". — Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. Vol 146: 96- 106. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.applanim.2013.04.002
16. Chase I.D. ( 1974). "Models of hierarchy formation in animal society". — Behav. Sci. Vol 19: 374- 382. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bs.3830190604
17. de Vries H. ( 1993). "The rowwise correlation between two proximity matrices and the partial rowwise correlation". — Psychometrika Vol 58: 53- 69. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02294470
18. de Vries H. ( 1995). "An improved test of linearity in dominance hierarchies containing unknown or tied relationships". — Anim. Behav. Vol 50: 1375- 1389. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0003-3472(95)80053-0
19. de Vries H. ( 1998). "Finding a dominance order most consistent with a linear hierarchy: a new procedure and review". — Anim. Behav. Vol 55: 827- 843. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/anbe.1997.0708
20. de Vries H. , Stevens J.M.G. , Vervaecke H. ( 2006). "Measuring and testing the steepness of dominance hierarchies". — Anim. Behav. Vol 71: 585- 592. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2005.05.015
21. de Waal F.B.M. ( 1986). "The integration of dominance and social bonding in primates". — Q. Rev. Biol. Vol 61: 459- 479. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/415144
22. de Waal F.B.M. , Luttrell L. ( 1985). "The formal hierarchy of rhesus monkeys: an investigation of the bared-teeth display". — Am. J. Primatol. Vol 9: 73- 85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.1350090202
23. Derix R. , van Hooff J. , de Vries H. , Wensing J. ( 1993). "Male and female mating competition in wolves: female suppression vs. male intervention". — Behaviour Vol 127: 141- 174. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/156853993X00461
24. Drews C. ( 1993). "The concept and definition of dominance". — Anim. Behav. Vol 125: 283- 313.
25. East M.L. , Hofer H. , Wickler W. ( 1993). "The erect ‘penis’ is a flag of submission in a female-dominated society: greetings in Serengeti spotted hyenas". — Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. Vol 33: 355- 370. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00170251
26. Eaton B. ( 2002). Dominance: fact or fiction?Dogwise, Wanatchee, WA.
27. Fedderson-Peterson D. ( 1991). "The ontogeny of social play and agonistic behavior in selected canine species". — Bonner Zool. Beitr. Vol 42: 97- 114.
28. Fedderson-Peterson D. ( 2004). Hundepsychologie: Sozialverhalten und Wesen, Emotionen und Individualität. — Kosmos, Stuttgart.
29. Flack J.C. , de Waal F.B.M. ( 2007). "Context modulates signal meaning in primate communication". — Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA Vol 104: 1581- 1586. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0603565104
30. Frank H. , Frank M.G. ( 1982). "On the effects of domestication on the development of canine social-development and behavior". — Appl. Anim. Ethol. Vol 8: 507- 525. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0304-3762(82)90215-2
31. Gammell M.P. , de Vries H. , Jennings D.J. , Carlin C.M. , Hayden T.J. ( 2003). "David’s score: a more appropriate dominance ranking method than Clutton-Brock et al.’s index". — Anim. Behav. Vol 66: 601- 605. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/anbe.2003.2226
32. Goddard M.E. , Beilharz R.G. ( 1985). "Individual variation in agonistic behavior in dogs". — Anim. Behav. Vol 125: 283- 313.
33. Goodman P.A. , Klinghammer E. , Willard J. ( 2002). Wolf ethogram. — Eckhard H. Hess Institute of Ethology, Battle Ground, IN.
34. Goodwin D. , Bradshaw J.W.S. , Wickens S.M. ( 1997). "Paedomorphosis affects agonistic visual signals of domestic dogs". — Anim. Behav. Vol 53: 297- 304. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/anbe.1996.0370
35. Hand J.L. ( 1986). "Resolution of social conflicts: dominance, egalitarianism, spheres of dominance, and game theory". — Q. Rev. Biol. Vol 61: 201- 220. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/414899
36. Handleman B. ( 2008). Canine behavior: a photo illustrated handbook. — Dogwise, Wanatchee, WA.
37. Hemelrijk C.K. ( 1990). "Models of, and tests for, reciprocity, unidirectionality and other social interaction patterns at a group level". — Anim. Behav. Vol 39: 1013- 1029. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0003-3472(05)80775-4
38. Hinde R. ( 1974). The biological basis of human social behavior. — McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.
39. Jenks S.M. ( 2011). "A longitudinal study of the sociosexual dynamics in a captive family group of wolves: The University of Connecticut wolf project". — Behav. Genet. Vol 41: 810- 829. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10519-011-9453-6
40. Jones A.C. , Gosling S.D. ( 2005). "Temperament and personality in dogs ( Canis familiaris): a review and evaluation of past research". — Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. Vol 95: 1- 53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.applanim.2005.04.008
41. Klass K. , Cords M. ( 2011). "Effect of unknown relationships on linearity, steepness and rank ordering of dominance hierarchies: simulation studies based on data from wild monkeys". — Behav. Proc. Vol 88: 168- 176. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2011.09.003
42. Landau H.G. ( 1951). "On dominance relations and the structure of animal society". — Bull. Math. Biol. Vol 13: 1- 19.
43. Lindsey S. ( 2001). Handbook of applied dog behavior and training. — Iowa University Press, Ames, IO. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470376997
44. Lockwood R. ( 1979). "Dominance in wolves: useful construct or bad habit?"— In: The behavior and ecology of wolves( Klinghammer E. , ed.). Garland STPM Press, New York, NY, p.  225- 245.
45. Lu A. , Koenig A. , Borries C. ( 2008). "Formal submission, tolerance and socioecological models: a test with female Hanuman langurs". — Anim. Behav. Vol 76: 415- 428. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2008.04.006
46. MacNulty D.R. , Smith D.W. , Mech L.D. , Vucetich J.A. , Packer C. ( 2011). "Nonlinear effects of group size on the success of wolves hunting elk". — Behav. Ecol. Vol 23: 75- 82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/beheco/arr159
47. Mech L.D. ( 1999). "Alpha status, dominance, and division of labor in wolf packs". — Can. J. Zool. Vol 77: 1196- 1203. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/z99-099
48. Mech L.D. , Boitani L. ( 2003). Wolves: behavior, ecology, and conservation. — The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL. http://dx.doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226516981.001.0001
49. Miklosi A. ( 2007). Dog behavior, evolution and cognition. — Oxford University Press, New York, NY. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199295852.001.0001
50. O’Heare J.J. ( 2007). "Social dominance: useful construct or quagmire?"— J. Comp. Anim. Behav. Vol 1: 56- 83.
51. Packard J.M. ( 2003). "Wolf behavior: reproductive, social and intelligent". — In: Wolves: behavior, ecology, and conservation( Mech L.D. , Boitani L. , eds). University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, p.  35- 65.
52. Pal S.K. ( 2003). "Reproductive behavior of free-ranging rural dogs ( Canis familiaris) in relations to mating strategy, season, and litter production". — Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. Vol 59: 331- 348. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1591(98)00108-7
53. Pal S.K. , Ghosh B. , Roy S. ( 1998). "Agonistic behavior of free-ranging dogs ( Canis familiaris) in relation to season, sex and age". — Acta Theriol. Vol 48: 271- 281. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF03194167
54. Perry S. , Manson J.H. ( 2008). Manipulative monkeys: the capuchins of Lomas Barbudal. — Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.
55. Peterson R.O. , Jacobs A.K. , Drummer T.D. , Mech L.D. , Smith D.W. ( 2002). "Leadership behavior in relation to dominance and reproductive status in gray wolves, Canis lupus ". — Can. J. Zool. Vol 80: 1405- 1412. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/z02-124
56. Preuschoft S. ( 1999). "Are primates behaviorists? Formal dominance, cognition and free-floating rationales". — J. Comp. Psychol. Vol 113: 91- 95. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0735-7036.113.1.91
57. Preuschoft S. , Paul A. , Kuester J. ( 1998). "Dominance styles of female and male barbary macaques ( Macaca sylvanus)". — Behaviour Vol 135: 731- 755. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/156853998792640477
58. Ritter C. , Viryáni Z. , Range F. ( 2012). Who is more tolerant? Cofeeding in pairs of pack-living dogs ( Canis familiaris) and wolves ( Canis lupus). — Paper presented at the 3rd Canine Science Forum Barcelona, Spain. Available online at .
59. Rowell T.E. ( 1974). "Concept of social dominance". — Behav. Biol. Vol 11: 131- 154. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0091-6773(74)90289-2
60. Sands J. , Creel S. ( 2004). "Social dominance, aggression and faecal glucocorticoid levels in a wild population of wolves, Canis lupus ". — Anim. Behav. Vol 67: 387- 396. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2003.03.019
61. Schenkel R. ( 1967). "Submission: its features and functions in wolf and dog". — Am. Zool. Vol 7: 319- 329.
62. Schilder M.B.H. , Vinke C.M. , van der Borg J.A.M. ( 2014). "Dominance in domestic dogs revisited: useful habit and useful construct?"— J. Vet. Behav. Vol 9: 184- 191. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jveb.2014.04.005
63. Scott J.P. , Fuller J.L. ( 1965). Genetics and the social behavior of the dog. — University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL.
64. Shepherd K. ( 2002). "Development of behaviour, social behaviour and communication in dogs". — In: BSAVA manual of canine and feline behavioural medicine( Horwitz D.F. , Mills D.S. , Heath S. , eds). British Small Animal Veterinary Association (BSAVA), Gloucester, p.  8- 20.
65. Shyan M.R. , Fortune K.A. , King C. ( 2003). "“Bark Parks.” A study of interdog aggression in a limited-control environment". — J. Appl. Anim. Welfare Sci. Vol 6: 25- 32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/S15327604JAWS0601_02
66. Smuts B.B. ( 2010). "Domestic dogs". — In: Encyclopedia of animal behavior( Breed M.D. , Moore J. , eds). Elsevier, New York, p.  562- 567. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-045337-8.00041-3
67. Smuts B.B. ( 2014). "Social behavior in companion dogs with an emphasis on play". — In: The social dog: behavior and cogcition( Kaminski J. , Marshall-Pescini S. , eds). Elsevier, New York, NY, p.  105- 130.
68. Smuts B.B. , Watanabe J.M. ( 1990). "Social relationships and ritualized greetings in adult male baboons ( Papio cynocephalus anubis)". — Int. J. Primatol. Vol 11: 147- 172. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02192786
69. Topál J. , Miklósi A. , Gácsi M. , Dóka A. , Pongracz P. , Kubinyi E. , Viryáni Z. , Csányi V. ( 2009). "The dog as a model for understanding human social behavior". — Adv. Stud. Behav. Vol 39: 71- 116.
70. van der Borg J.A.M. , Schilder M.B.H. , Vinke C. ( 2012). Dominance and its behavioural measures in a pack of domestic dogs. — Paper presented at the 3 rdCanine Science Forum Barcelona, Spain. Available online at .
71. van Hooff J.A.R.A.M. , Wensing J.A.B. ( 1987). "Dominance and its behavioral measures in a captive wolf pack". — In: Man and wolf: advances, issues, and problems in captive wolf research( Frank H. , ed.). Dr. W. Junk, Dordrecht, p.  219- 252.
72. van Kerkhove W. ( 2004). "A fresh look at the wolf-pack theory of companion-animal dog social behavior". — J. Appl. Anim. Welfare Sci. Vol 7: 279- 285. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327604jaws0704_7
73. Vervaecke H. , de Vries H. , van Elsacker L. ( 2000). "Dominance and its behavioral measures in a captive group of bonobos ( Pan paniscus)". — Int. J. Primatol. Vol 21: 47- 68. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1005471512788
74. Viryáni Z. , Range F. ( 2014). "On the way to a better understanding of dog domestication: aggression and cooperativeness in dogs and wolves". — In: The social dog: behaviour and cognition( Kaminski J. , Marshall-Pescini S. , eds). Elsevier, New York, NY, p.  35- 62.
75. Vonholdt B.M. , Stahler D.R. , Smith D.W. , Earl D.A. , Pollinger J.P. , Wayne R.K. ( 2008). "The geneology and genetic viability of reintroduced Yellowstone grey wolves". — Mol. Ecol. Vol 17: 252- 274. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-294X.2007.03468.x
76. Ward C. , Bauer E.B. , Smuts B.B. ( 2008). "Partner preferences and asymmetries in social play among domestic dog, Canis lupus familiaris, littermates". — Anim. Behav. Vol 76: 1187- 1199. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2008.06.004
77. Zahavi A. ( 1977). "The testing of a bond". — Anim. Behav. Vol 25: 246- 247. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0003-3472(77)90089-6
78. Zimen E. ( 1978). The wolf. — Delacorte Press, New York, NY.
http://brill.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1163/1568539x-00003249
Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1163/1568539x-00003249
2015-03-20
2017-08-18

Sign-in

Can't access your account?
  • Tools

  • Add to Favorites
  • Printable version
  • Email this page
  • Subscribe to ToC alert
  • Get permissions
  • Recommend to your library

    You must fill out fields marked with: *

    Librarian details
    Your details
    Why are you recommending this title?
    Select reason:
     
    Behaviour — Recommend this title to your library
  • Export citations
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation