Cookies Policy
X

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

An unusual case of affiliative association of a female Lemur cattain a Hapalemur meridionalissocial group

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

Access this article

+ Tax (if applicable)
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

image of Behaviour

Polyspecific associations are well documented, but have rarely been observed in strepsirrhines. In this study we present a unique affiliative association between a female ring-tailed lemur ( Lemur catta) and a group of southern bamboo lemurs ( Hapalemur meridionalis) in south-east Madagascar. Our main research focused on H. meridionalis; however, due to the presence of the L. cattawe treated her as a group member, including her in the focal sampling of Hapalemursocial behaviour. We also recorded ad libitum data on all food species/items and any unique events or occurrences. Among observations, both species appeared to have a mutual understanding of vocalisations, behavioural synchronisation, dietary overlap, and possible service exchange, e.g., grooming. We also observed the L. cattaoccasionally attending to the bamboo lemur infant. This included grooming, baby-sitting, and even transporting the infant. The behavioural flexibility exhibited by both species has allowed the successful integration of the female ring-tailed lemur.

Affiliations: 1: bNocturnal Primate Research Group, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, UK; 2: aBiozentrum Grindel, Department of Animal Ecology and Conservation, University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany

10.1163/1568539X-00003267
/content/journals/10.1163/1568539x-00003267
dcterms_title,pub_keyword,dcterms_description,pub_author
10
5
Loading
Loading

Full text loading...

/content/journals/10.1163/1568539x-00003267
Loading

Data & Media loading...

1. Bicca-Marques J.C. , Garber P.A. ( 2003). "Experimental field study of the relative costs and benefits to wild tamarins ( Saguinus imperatorand S. fuscicollis) of exploiting contestable food patches as single- and mixed-species troops". — Am. J. Primatol. Vol 60: 139- 153. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.10101
2. Buchanan-Smith H.M. ( 1990). "Polyspecific association of two tamarin species, Saguinus labiatusand Saguinus fuscicollis, in Bolivia". — Am. J. Primatol. Vol 22: 205- 214. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.1350220306
3. Buchanan-Smith H.M. ( 1999). "Tamarin polyspecific associations, forest utilization and stability of mixed-species groups". — Primates Vol 40: 233- 247. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02557713
4. Burton F.D. , Chan L.K.W. ( 1987). "Notes on the care of long-tail macaque ( Macaca fasicularis) infants by stump-tail ( M. thibetana) females". — Can. J. Zool. Vol 65: 752- 755. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/z87-115
5. Buzzard P.J. ( 2010). "Polyspecific associations of Cercopithecus campbelliand C. petauristawith C. diana: what are the costs and benefits?"— Primates Vol 51: 307- 314. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10329-010-0203-9
6. Chapman C.A. , Chapman L.J. ( 1996). "Mixed-species primate groups in the Kibale Forest: ecological constraints on association". — Int. J. Primatol. Vol 17: 31- 50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02696157
7. Chapman C.A. , Chapman L.J. ( 2000). "Interdemic variation in mixed-species association patterns: common diurnal primates of Kibale National Park, Uganda". — Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. Vol 47: 129- 139. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s002650050003
8. Cords M. ( 1990a). "Mixed-species associations of East African guenons: general patterns or specific examples?"— Am. J. Primatol. Vol 21: 101- 114. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.1350210204
9. Cords M. ( 1990b). "Vigilance and mixed species association in some East African forest guenons". — Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. Vol 26: 297- 300. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00178323
10. Cords M. ( 2000). "Mixed-species association and group movement". — In: On the move: how and why animals travel in groups( Boinski S. , Garber P. , eds). University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, p.  73- 99.
11. Cords M. , Würsig B. ( 2014). "A mix of species: associations of heterospecifics among primates and dolphins". — In: Primates and cetaceans( Yamagiwa J. , Karczmarski L. , eds). Springer, Tokyo, p.  409- 431. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-4-431-54523-1_21
12. de Waal F.B.M. , van Roosmalen A. ( 1979). "Reconciliation and consolation among chimpanzees". — Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. Vol 5: 55- 66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00302695
13. Dumetz N. ( 1999). "High plant diversity of lowland rainforest vestiges in eastern Madagascar". — Biodivers. Conserv. Vol 8: 273- 315. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1008880718889
14. Eckardt W. , Zuberbühler K. ( 2004). "Cooperation and competition in two forest monkeys". — Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. Vol 15: 400- 411. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/beheco/arh032
15. Eppley T.M. , Donati G. ( 2009). "Grazing lemurs: exhibition of terrestrial feeding by the southern gentle lemur, Hapalemur meridionalis, in the Mandena littoral forest, southeast Madagascar". — Lemur News Vol 14: 16- 20.
16. Eppley T.M. , Donati G. ( 2010). "Observations of terrestrial latrine behaviour by the southern gentle lemur Hapalemur meridionalisin the Mandena littoral forest, southeast Madagascar". — Lemur News Vol 15: 51- 54.
17. Eppley T.M. , Verjans E. , Donati G. ( 2011). "Coping with low-quality diets: a first account of the feeding ecology of the southern gentle lemur, Hapalemur meridionalis, in the Mandena littoral forest, southeast Madagascar". — Primates Vol 52: 7- 13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10329-010-0225-3
18. Fimbel C.C. ( 1992). "Cross-species handling of colobine infants". — Primates Vol 33: 545- 549. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02381154
19. Fleury M.C. , Gautier-Hion A. ( 1997). "Better to live with allogenerics than to live alone? The case of a single male Cercopithecus pogoniasin troops of Colobus satanus ". — Int. J. Primatol. Vol 18: 967- 974. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1026348230669
20. Freed B.Z. ( 2006). "Polyspecific associations of crowned lemurs and Sanford’s lemurs in Madagascar". — In: Lemurs: ecology and adaptation( Gould L. , Sauther M.L. , eds). Springer, New York, NY, p.  111- 131.
21. Ganzhorn J.U. ( 1986). "The influence of plant chemistry on food selection by Lemur cattaand Lemur fulvus ". — In: Primate ecology and conservation( Else J.G. , Lee P.C. , eds). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, p.  21- 29.
22. Ganzhorn J.U. , Andrianasolo T. , Andrianjazalahatra T. , Donati G. , Fietz J. , Lahann P. , Norscia I. , Rakotondranary J. , Rakotondratsima B.M. , Ralison J. , Ramarokoto R.E.A.F. , Randriamanga S. , Rasarimanana S. , Rakotosamimanana B. , Ramanamanjato J.-B. , Randria G. , Rasolofoharivelo M.T. , Razanahoera-Rakotomalala M. , Schmid J. , Sommer S. ( 2007). "Lemurs in evergreen littoral forest fragments". — In: Biodiversity, ecology, and conservation of the littoral ecosystems in southeastern Madagascar, Tolagnaro (Fort Dauphin)( Ganzhorn J.U. , Goodman S.M. , Vincelette M. , eds). Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, p.  223- 225.
23. Gautier-Hion A. , Quris R. , Gautier J.-P. ( 1983). "Monospecific vs. polyspecific life: a comparative study of foraging and antipredatory tactics in a community of Cercopithecusmonkeys". — Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. Vol 12: 325- 335. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00302901
24. Gautier-Hion A. , Gautier J.-P. , Moungazi A. ( 1997). "Do black colobus in mixed species groups benefit from increased foraging efficiency?"— C. R. Acad. Sci. III Vol 320: 67- 71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0764-4469(99)80088-2
25. Goldizen A.W. ( 1987). "Facultative polyandry and the role of infant-carrying in wild saddle-back tamarins ( Saguinus fuscicollis)". — Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. Vol 20: 99- 109. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00572631
26. Gould L. ( 1992). "Alloparental care in free-ranging Lemur cattaat Berenty Reserve, Madagascar". — Folia Primatol. Vol 58: 72- 83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000156611
27. Gould L. , Sauther M.L. , Cameron A. ( 2000). "Adoption of a wild orphaned ringtailed lemur infant by natal group members: adaptive explanations". — Primates Vol 41: 413- 419. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02557652
28. Gould L. , Sussman R.W. , Sauther M.L. ( 2003). "Demographic and life-history patterns in a population of ring-tailed lemurs ( Lemur catta) at Beza Mahafaly Reserve, Madagascar: a 15-year perspective". — Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. Vol 120: 182- 194. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.10151
29. Gray J.P. ( 1985). Primate sociobiology. — HRAF Press, New Haven, CT.
30. Haring D. , Davis K. ( 1998). "Management of the grey gentle or Eastern lesser bamboo lemur Hapalemur griseus griseusat Duke University Primate Center, Durham". — Int. Zoo Yb. Vol 36: 20- 34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-1090.1998.tb02881.x
31. Haugaasen T. , Peres C.A. ( 2009). "Interspecific primate associations in Amazonian flooded and unflooded forests". — Primates Vol 50: 239- 251. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10329-009-0135-4
32. Heymann E.W. ( 2011). "Coordination in primate mixed-species groups". — In: Coordination in human and primate groups( Boos M. , Kolbe M. , Kappeler P.M. , Ellwart T. , eds). Springer, Heidelberg, p.  263- 281. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-15355-6_15
33. Heymann E.W. , Buchanan-Smith H.M. ( 2000). "The behavioural ecology of mixed-species troops of callitrichine primates". — Biol. Rev. Vol 75: 169- 190. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0006323199005460
34. Heymann E.W. , Hsia S.S. ( 2014). "Unlike fellows — a review of primate–non-primate associations". — Biol. Rev., in press, DOI: .
35. Heymann E.W. , Sicchar Valdez L.A. ( 1988). "Interspecific social grooming in a mixed troop of tamarins, Saginus mystaxand Saginus fuscicollis(Platyrrhini: Callitrichidae), in an outdoor enclosure". — Folia Primatol. Vol 50: 221- 225. http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000156347
36. Höner O.P. , Leumann L. , Noë R. ( 1997). "Dyadic associations of red colobus and diana monkey groups in the Taï National Park, Ivory Coast". — Primates Vol 38: 281- 291. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02381615
37. Horvath J.E. , Weisrock D.V. , Embry S.L. , Fiorentino I. , Balhoff J.P. , Kappeler P.M. , Wray G.A. , Willard H.F. , Yoder A.D. ( 2008). "Development and application of a phylogenomic toolkit: resolving the evolutionary history of Madagascar’s lemurs". — Genome Res. Vol 18: 489- 499. http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/gr.7265208
38. Irwin M.T. , Samonds K.E. , Raharison J.-L. , Wright P.C. ( 2004). "Lemur latrines: observations of latrine behavior in wild primates and possible ecological significance". — J. Mammal. Vol 85: 420- 427. http://dx.doi.org/10.1644/1545-1542(2004)085<0420:LLOOLB>2.0.CO;2
39. Izar P. , Verderane M.P. , Visalberghi E. , Ottoni E.B. , de Oliveira M.G. , Shirley J. , Fragaszy D. ( 2006). "Cross-genus adoption of a marmoset ( Callithrix jacchus) by wild capuchin monkeys ( Cebus libidinosus): case report". — Am. J. Primatol. Vol 68: 692- 700. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.20259
40. Jolly A. ( 1966). Lemur behavior. — University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL.
41. Jolly A. ( 2004). Lords and lemurs: mad scientists, kings with spears, and the survival of diversity in Madagascar. — Houghton Mifflin, Boston, MA.
42. Jolly A. ( 2009). "Coat condition of ringtailed lemurs, Lemur cattaat Berenty Reserve, Madagascar: I. Differences by age, sex, density and tourism, 1996–2006". — Am. J. Primatol. Vol 71: 191- 198. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.20647
43. Jolly A. , Sussman R.W. , Koyama N. , Rasamimanana H. ( 2006). Ringtailed lemur biology. — Springer, New York, NY. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-34126-2
44. Kappeler P.M. ( 1993). "Reconciliation and post-conflict behaviour in ringtailed lemurs, Lemur catta, and red-fronted lemurs, Eulemur fulvus rufus ". — Anim. Behav. Vol 45: 901- 915. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/anbe.1993.1110
45. Kelley E.A. , Sussman R.W. , Muldoon K.M. ( 2007). "The status of lemur species at Antserananomby: an update". — Primat. Conserv. Vol 22: 71- 77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1896/052.022.0105
46. Korstjens A.H. , Noë R. ( 2004). "Mating system of an exceptional primate, the olive colobus ( Procolobus verus)". — Am. J. Primatol. Vol 62: 261- 273. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.20020
47. Manohar B.R. , Mathur R. ( 1992). "Interspecific play behaviour between Hanuman langur Presbytis entellusand rhesus macaque Macaca mulatta ". — J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. Vol 89: 114- 115.
48. McGraw W.S. , Bshary R. ( 2001). "Association of terrestrial mangabeys ( Cercocebus atys) with arboreal monkeys: experimental evidence for the effects of reduced ground predator pressure on habitat use". — Int. J. Primatol. Vol 23: 311- 325. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1013883528244
49. Mitani M. ( 1991). "Niche overlap and polyspecific associations among sympatric cercopithecids in the Campo Animal Reserve, southwestern Cameroon". — Primates Vol 32: 137- 151. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02381172
50. Mittermeier R.A. , Louis E.E. Jr. , Richardson M. , Schwitzer C. , Langrand O. , Rylands A. , Hawkins F. , Rajaobelina S. , Ratsimbazafy J. , Roos C. , Kappeler P.M. , MacKinnon J. ( 2010). Lemurs of Madagascar, 3rd edn.Conservation International, Washington, DC.
51. Noë R. , Bshary R. ( 1997). "The formation of red colobus–Diana monkey associations under predation pressure from chimpanzees". — Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B: Biol. Sci. Vol 264: 253- 259. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.1997.0036
52. Norscia I. , Palagi E. ( 2011). "Do wild brown lemurs reconcile? Not always". — J. Ethol. Vol 29: 181- 185.
53. Palagi E. , Antonacci D. , Norscia I. ( 2008). "Peacemaking on treetops: first evidence of reconciliation from a wild prosimian ( Propithecus verreauxi)". — Anim. Behav. Vol 76: 737- 747. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2008.04.016
54. Palagi E. , Paoli T. , Tarli S.B. ( 2005). "Aggression and reconciliation in two captive groups of Lemur catta ". — Int. J. Primatol. Vol 26: 279- 294. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10764-005-2925-x
55. Peres C.A. ( 1992). "Prey-capture benefits in a mixed-species group of Amazonian tamarins, Saguinus fuscicollisand S. mystax ". — Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. Vol 31: 339- 347. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00177774
56. Petter J. , Peyrieras A. ( 1970). "Observations ecoethologiques sur les lemuriens malgaches du genre Hapalemur ". — Terre Vie Vol 24: 356- 382.
57. Port M. , Clough D. , Kappeler P.M. ( 2009). "Market effects offset the reciprocation of grooming in free-ranging redfronted lemurs, Eulemur fulvus rufus ". — Anim. Behav. Vol 77: 29- 36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2008.08.032
58. Porter L.M. ( 2001). "Benefits of polyspecific associations for the Goeldi’s monkey ( Callimico goeldii)". — Am. J. Primatol. Vol 54: 143- 158. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.1019
59. Porter L.M. , Sterr S.M. , Garber P.A. ( 2007). "Habitat use and ranging behavior of Callimico goeldi ". — Int. J. Primatol. Vol 28: 1035- 1058. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10764-007-9205-x
60. Rabenantoandro J. , Randriatafika F. , Lowry P.P. ( 2007). "Floristic and structural characteristics of remnant littoral forest sites in the Tolagnaro area". — In: Biodiversity, ecology, and conservation of the littoral ecosystems in southeastern Madagascar, Tolagnaro (Fort Dauphin)( Ganzhorn J.U. , Goodman S.M. , Vincelette M. , eds). Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, p.  223- 225.
61. Ramanamanjato J.-B. , McIntyre P.B. , Nussbaum R.A. ( 2002). "Reptile, amphibian, and lemur diversity of the Malahelo Forest, a biogeographical transition zone in southeastern Madagascar". — Biodivers. Conserv. Vol 11: 1791- 1807. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1020325415489
62. Rehg J.A. ( 2006). "Seasonal variation in polyspecific associations among Callimico goeldii, Saguinus labiatus, and S. fuscicollisin Acre, Brazil". — Int. J. Primatol. Vol 27: 1399- 1428. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10764-006-9076-6
63. Ross C. ( 2001). "Park or ride? Evolution of infant carrying in primates". — Int. J. Primatol. Vol 22: 749- 771. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1012065332758
64. Sauther M.L. ( 1993). "The dynamics of feeding competition in wild populations of ringtailed lemurs ( Lemur catta)". — In: Lemur social systems and their ecological basis( Kappeler P.M. , Ganzhorn J.U. , eds). Plenum Press, New York, p.  135- 152. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4899-2412-4_10
65. Sauther M.L. ( 2002). "Group size effects on predation sensitive foraging in wild Lemur catta ". — In: Eat or be eaten: predation sensitive foraging among primates( Miller L.E. , ed.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, p.  107- 125. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511610233.008
66. Schilling A. ( 1979). "Olfactory communication in prosimians". — In: The study of prosimian behavior( Dole G.A. , Martin R.D. , eds). Academic Press, New York, NY, p.  461- 542. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-222150-7.50016-7
67. Schradin C. , Anzenberger G. ( 2001). "Costs of infant carrying in common marmosets, Callithrix jacchus: an experimental analysis". — Anim. Behav. Vol 62: 289- 295. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/anbe.2001.1767
68. Schwitzer C. , Mittermeier R.A. , Johnson S.E. , Donati G. , Irwin M. , Peacock H. , Ratsimbazafy J. , Razafindramanana J. , Louis E.E. Jr. , Chikhi L. , Colquhoun I.C. , Tinsman J. , Dolch R. , LaFleur M. , Nash S. , Patel E. , Randrianambinina B. , Rasolofoharivelo T. , Wright P.C. ( 2014). "Averting lemur extinctions amid Madagascar’s political crisis". — Science Vol 343: 842- 843. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1245783
69. Seiler M. , Schwitzer C. , Gamba M. , Holderied M.W. ( 2013). "Interspecific semantic alarm call recognition in the solitary Sahamalaza sportive lemur, Lepilemur sahamalazensis ". — PloS One Vol 8: e67397. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0067397
70. Seyfarth R. , Cheney D. ( 1984). "Grooming alliances and reciprocal altruism in vervet monkeys". — Nature Vol 308: 541- 542. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/308541a0
71. Simmen B. , Sauther M.L. , Soma T. , Rasamimanana H. , Sussman R.W. , Jolly A. , Tarnaud L. , Hladik A. ( 2006). "Plant species fed on by Lemur cattain gallery forests of the southern domain of Madagascar". — In: Ringtailed lemur biology( Jolly A. , Sussman R.W. , Koyama N. , Rasamimanana H. , eds). Springer, New York, NY, p.  55- 68. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-34126-2_5
72. Stensland E. , Angerbjörna A. , Berggren P. ( 2003). "Mixed species groups in mammals". — Mammal Rev. Vol 33: 205- 223. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2907.2003.00022.x
73. Struhsaker T.T. ( 1981). "Polyspecific associations among tropical rain-forest primates". — Z. Tierpsychol. Vol 57: 268- 304. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0310.1981.tb01928.x
74. Tan C.L. ( 2006). "Behavior and ecology of gentle lemurs (genus Hapalemur)". — In: Lemurs: ecology and adaptation( Gould L. , Sauther M.L. , eds). Springer, New York, NY, p.  369- 381.
75. Taylor L.A. , Schwitzer C. ( 2012). "Body masses of wild lemurs". — Lemur News Vol 16: 34- 40.
76. Tecot S.R. , Baden A.L. , Romine N. , Kamilar J.M. ( 2013). "Reproductive strategies and infant care in the Malagasy primates". — In: Building babies( Clancy K.B.H. , Hinde K. , Rutherford J.N. , eds). Springer, New York, NY, p.  321- 359. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-4060-4_15
77. Terborgh J. ( 1990). "Mixed flocks and polyspecific associations: costs and benefits of mixed groups to birds and monkeys". — Am. J. Primatol. Vol 21: 87- 100. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.1350210203
78. Veasey J. , Hammer G. ( 2010). "Managing captive mammals in mixed-species communities". — In: Wild mammals in captivity: principles and techniques( Kleiman D.G. , Thompson K.V. , Baer C.K. , eds). University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, p.  151- 161.
79. Wachter B. , Schabel M. , Noë R. ( 1997). "Diet overlap and polyspecific associations of red colobus and Diana monkeys in Taï National Park, Ivory Coast". — Ethology Vol 103: 514- 526. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0310.1997.tb00164.x
80. Waeber P.O. , Hemelrijk C.K. ( 2003). "Female dominance and social structure in Alaotran gentle lemurs". — Behaviour Vol 140: 1235- 1246. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/156853903771980576
81. Waser P.M. ( 1982). "Primate polyspecific associations: do they occur by chance?"— Anim. Behav. Vol 30: 1- 8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0003-3472(82)80230-3
82. Wilson J.M. , Stewart P.D. , Ramangason G.S. , Denning A.M. , Hutchings M.S. ( 1989). "Ecology and conservation of the crowned lemur, Lemur coronatus, at Ankarana, N. Madagascar, with notes on Sanford’s lemur, other sympatric and subfossil lemurs". — Folia Primatol. Vol 52: 1- 26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000156379
83. Wright P.C. ( 1990). "Patterns of paternal care in primates". — Int. J. Primatol. Vol 11: 89- 101. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02192783
http://brill.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1163/1568539x-00003267
Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1163/1568539x-00003267
2015-05-29
2018-07-18

Sign-in

Can't access your account?
  • Tools

  • Add to Favorites
  • Printable version
  • Email this page
  • Subscribe to ToC alert
  • Get permissions
  • Recommend to your library

    You must fill out fields marked with: *

    Librarian details
    Your details
    Why are you recommending this title?
    Select reason:
     
    Behaviour — Recommend this title to your library
  • Export citations
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation