Cookies Policy
X

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

Association patterns and affiliative relationships outside a troop in wild male Japanese macaques, Macaca fuscata, during the non-mating season

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

Access this article

+ Tax (if applicable)
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

image of Behaviour

In many mammals, males disperse more than females. Although males in some male-dispersing species form all-male groups, little is known about the association patterns or social relationships among them. Studies on male–male social relationships have primarily focused on competition over fertile females, but affiliative relationships among males have attracted much interest recently. I suggested a novel method for the classification of males based on their behaviour by principal component analysis (PCA), and investigated association patterns, and affiliative relationships in male Japanese macaques, Macaca fuscata, during the non-mating season. I observed 12 wild male Japanese macaques for 809 h during the non-mating season. The number of other animals within visual range, the amount of time that males spent in the vicinity of other animals, and the frequency of grooming interactions were examined. I classified males into two distinctive clusters (Cluster 1 and 2) according to their association and interaction patterns. Cluster 1 males associated with females and participated in grooming with them. Cluster 2 males had less visual encounters with females and did not groom them. Cluster 2 males showed proximity to other Cluster 2 males in all possible dyads. Although Cluster 2 males showed less proximity to each other than Cluster 1 males did, they frequently exchanged grooming among themselves. Cluster 2 males groomed Cluster 1 males more frequently than they were groomed by them. These results suggested that Cluster 1 were troop males, and Cluster 2 were non-troop males. Cluster 2 males had less opportunity for social interaction than Cluster 1 (troop) males, and they may form all-male groups. Males in all-male groups engaged in more frequent grooming than troop males. In addition, they groomed troop males more frequently than they were groomed. These results suggest that males could be separated by their behaviour. Male–male affiliative relationships might be influenced by within-group potential competition and imbalanced grooming appears to cause troop males to tolerate non-troop males which might be immigrated in near future.

Affiliations: 1: Laboratory of Human Evolution Studies, Department of Zoology, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Japan

10.1163/1568539X-00003325
/content/journals/10.1163/1568539x-00003325
dcterms_title,pub_keyword,dcterms_description,pub_author
10
5
Loading
Loading

Full text loading...

/content/journals/10.1163/1568539x-00003325
Loading

Data & Media loading...

1. Altmann J. (1974). "Observational study of behavior: sampling methods". — Behaviour Vol 49: 227-267. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/156853974X00534
2. Aureli F. , Schaffner C.M. , Boesch C. , Bearder S.K. , Call J. , Chapman C.A. , Connor R. , Di Fiore A. , Dunbar R.I. , Henzi S.P. (2008). "Fission–fusion dynamics". — Curr. Anthropol. Vol 49: 627-654. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/586708
3. Bercovitch F.B. , Harvey N.C. (2004). "Reproductive life history". — In: Macaque societies: a model for the study of social organization ( Thierry B. , Singh M. , Kaumanns W. , eds). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, p.  61-80.
4. Berghänel A. , Ostner J. , Schröder U. , Schülke O. (2011). "Social bonds predict future cooperation in male Barbary macaques, Macaca sylvanus ". — Anim. Behav. Vol 81: 1109-1116. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2011.02.009
5. Bissonnette A. , Franz M. , Schülke O. , Ostner J. (2014). "Socioecology, but not cognition, predicts male coalitions across primates". — Behav. Ecol. Vol 25: 794-801. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/beheco/aru054
6. Bon R. , Rideau C. , Villaret J.C. , Joachim J. (2001). "Segregation is not only a matter of sex in Alpine ibex, Capra ibex ibex ". — Anim. Behav. Vol 62: 495-504. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/anbe.2001.1776
7. Chiyo P.I. , Archie E.A. , Hollister-Smith J.A. , Lee P.C. , Poole J.H. , Moss C.J. , Alberts S.C. (2011). "Association patterns of African elephants in all-male groups: the role of age and genetic relatedness". — Anim. Behav. Vol 81: 1093-1099. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2011.02.013
8. Clutton-Brock T.H. , Harvey P.H. , Rudder B. (1977). "Sexual dimorphism, socionomic sex ratio and body weight in primates". — Nature Vol 269: 797-800. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/269797a0
9. Connor R.C. , Heithaus M.R. , Barre L.M. (2001). "Complex social structure, alliance stability and mating access in bottlenose dolphin ‘super-alliance’". — Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B: Biol. Sci. Vol 268: 263-267. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2000.1357
10. Connor R.C. , Smolker R.A. , Richards A.F. (1992). "Two levels of alliance formation among male bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp.)". — Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA Vol 89: 987-990. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.89.3.987
11. Connor R.C. , Whitehead H. (2005). "Alliances II. Rates of encounter during resource utilization: a general model of intrasexual alliance formation in fission–fusion societies". — Anim. Behav. Vol 69: 127-132. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2004.02.022
12. Cords M. (2000). "The number of males in guenon groups". — In: Primate males: causes and consequences of variation in group composition ( Kappeler P.M. , ed.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, p.  84-96.
13. Cox C.R. , Le Boeuf B.J. (1977). "Female incitation of male competition: a mechanism in sexual selection". — Am. Nat.: 317-335. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/283163
14. Dobson S.F. (1982). "Competition for mates and predominant juvenile male dispersal in mammals". — Anim. Behav. Vol 30: 1183-1192. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0003-3472(82)80209-1
15. Fischhoff I.R. , Dushoff J. , Sundaresan S.R. , Cordingley J.E. , Rubenstein D.I. (2009). "Reproductive status influences group size and persistence of bonds in male plains zebra (Equus burchelli)". — Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. Vol 63: 1035-1043. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00265-009-0723-8
16. Fraser O.N. , Schino G. , Aureli F. (2008). "Components of relationship quality in chimpanzees". — Ethology Vol 114: 834-843. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0310.2008.01527.x
17. Fujita S. (2010). "Interaction between male and female mating strategies and factors affecting reproductive outcome". — In: The Japanese macaques ( Nakagawa N. , Nakamichi M. , Sugiura H. , eds). Springer, Tokyo, p.  221-239. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-4-431-53886-8_10
18. Fujita S. , Sugiura H. , Mitsunaga F. , Shimizu K. (2004). "Hormone profiles and reproductive characteristics in wild female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata)". — Am. J. Primatol. Vol 64: 367-375. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.20086
19. Funston P. , Mills M. , Biggs H. , Richardson P. (1998). "Hunting by male lions: ecological influences and socioecological implications". — Anim. Behav. Vol 56: 1333-1345. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/anbe.1998.0884
20. Furuichi T. (1985). "Inter-male associations in a wild Japanese macaque troop on Yakushima Island, Japan". — Primates Vol 26: 219-237. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02382399
21. Greenwood P.J. (1980). "Mating systems, philopatry and dispersal in birds and mammals". — Anim. Behav. Vol 28: 1140-1162. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0003-3472(80)80103-5
22. Hill D.A. (1994). "Affiliative behaviour between adult males of the genus Macaca ". — Behaviour Vol 130: 293-308. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/156853994X00578
23. Hirsch B.T. (2007). "Costs and benefits of within-group spatial position: a feeding competition model". — Q. Rev. Biol. Vol 82: 9-27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/511657
24. Hirsch B.T. , Maldonado J.E. (2011). "Familiarity breeds progeny: sociality increases reproductive success in adult male ring-tailed coatis (Nasua nasua)". — Mol. Ecol. Vol 20: 409-419. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-294X.2010.04940.x
25. Horiuchi S. (2005). "Affiliative relations among male Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui) within and outside a troop on Yakushima Island". — Primates Vol 46: 191-197. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10329-005-0131-2
26. Isbell L.A. (1991). "Contest and scramble competition: patterns of female aggression and ranging behavior among primates". — Behav. Ecol. Vol 2: 143-155. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/beheco/2.2.143
27. Izawa K. (1999). "A comparison of six monkey troops on Kinkazan Island". — Monkeys of Miyagi Prefecture Vol 10: 1-11 (in Japanese).
28. Koda H. , Shimooka Y. , Sugiura H. (2008). "Effects of caller activity and habitat visibility on contact call rate of wild Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata)". — Am. J. Primatol. Vol 70: 1055-1063. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.20597
29. Krause J. , Croft D. , James R. (2007). "Social network theory in the behavioural sciences: potential applications". — Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. Vol 62: 15-27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00265-007-0445-8
30. Kutsukake N. , Hasegawa T. (2005). "Dominance turnover between an alpha and a beta male and dynamics of social relationships in Japanese macaques". — Int. J. Primatol. Vol 26: 775-800. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10764-005-5308-4
31. Lettevall E. , Richter C. , Jaquet N. , Slooten E. , Dawson S. , Whitehead H. , Christal J. , Howard P.M. (2002). "Social structure and residency in aggregations of male sperm whales". — Can. J. Zool. Vol 80: 1189-1196. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/z02-102
32. Majolo B. , Ventura R. , Koyama N.F. (2005). "Sex, rank and age differences in the Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata yakui) participation in inter-group encounters". — Ethology Vol 111: 455-468. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0310.2005.01087.x
33. Majolo B. , Ventura R. , Schino G. (2010). "Asymmetry and dimensions of relationship quality in the Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata yakui)". — Int. J. Primatol. Vol 31: 736-750. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10764-010-9424-4
34. Martin P. , Bateson P.P.G. (2007). Measuring behaviour: an introductory guide. — Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511810893
35. Matsumura S. (1993). "Intergroup affiliative interactions and intergroup transfer of young male Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata)". — Primates Vol 34: 1-10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02381275
36. Matsumura S. (1999). "The evolution of “egalitarian” and “despotic” social systems among macaques". — Primates Vol 40: 23-31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02557699
37. Mitani J.C. , Gros-Louis J. , Manson J.H. (1996). "Number of males in primate groups: comparative tests of competing hypotheses". — Am. J. Primatol. Vol 38: 315-332. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1098-2345(1996)38:4<315::AID-AJP3>3.0.CO;2-1
38. Moss C. , Poole J. (1983). "Relationships and social structure of African elephants". — In: Primate social relationships: an integrated approach ( Hinde R.A. , ed.). Blackwell Scientific, Oxford, p.  315-325.
39. Muroyama Y. , Imae H. , Okuda K. (2000). "Radio tracking of a male Japanese macaque emigrated from its group". — Primates Vol 41: 351-356. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02557604
40. Nakagawa N. (1997). "Determinants of the dramatic seasonal changes in the intake of energy and protein by Japanese monkeys in a cool temperate forest". — Am. J. Primatol. Vol 41: 267-288. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1098-2345(1997)41:4<267::AID-AJP1>3.0.CO;2-V
41. Nakagawa N. (1998). "Ecological determinants of the behavior and social structure of Japanese monkeys: a synthesis". — Primates Vol 39: 375-383. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02573085
42. Nakagawa N. , Nakamichi M. , Sugiura H. (2010). "Preface". — In: The Japanese macaques ( Nakagawa N. , Nakamichi M. , Sugiura H. , eds). Springer, Tokyo, p.  5-15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-4-431-53886-8
43. Nishida T. (1966). "A sociological study of solitary male monkeys". — Primates Vol 7: 141-204. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01730789
44. Ostner J. , Kappeler P.M. (2004). "Male life history and the unusual adult sex ratios of redfronted lemur, Eulemur fulvus rufus, groups". — Anim. Behav. Vol 67: 249-259. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2003.05.012
45. Ostner J. , Schülke O. (2014). "The evolution of social bonds in primate males". — Behaviour Vol 151: 871-906. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/1568539X-00003191
46. Otani Y. , Sawada A. , Hanya G. (2014). "Short-term separation from groups by male Japanese macaques: costs and benefits in feeding behavior and social interaction". — Am. J. Primatol. Vol 76: 374-384. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.22241
47. Otani Y. , Yoshihiro S. , Takahata Y. , Zamma K. , Nagai M. , Kanie M. , Hayaishi S. , Fujino M. , Sugaya K. , Sudo M. , Amanai S. , Kaneda M. , Tachikawa Y. , Fukunaga Y. , Okahisa Y. , Higashi K. , Hanya G. (2013). "Density of Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata yakui) males ranging alone: seasonal and regional variation in male cohesiveness with the group". — Mammal. Stud. Vol 38: 105-115. http://dx.doi.org/10.3106/041.038.0206
48. Packer C. , Pusey A.E. (1982). "Cooperation and competition within coalitions of male lions: kin selection or game theory?" — Nature Vol 296: 740-742. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/296740a0
49. Paul A. (2002). "Sexual selection and mate choice". — Int. J. Primatol. Vol 23: 877-904. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1015533100275
50. Pusey A.E. , Packer C. (1987). "Dispersal and philopatry". — In: Primate societies ( Smuts B.B. , Cheney D.L. , Seyfarth R.M. , Wrangham R.W. , Struhsaker T.T. , eds). University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, p.  250-266.
51. R Core Team (2013). R: a language and environment for statistical computing. — R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna.
52. Rajpurohit L.S. , Sommer V. , Mohnot S.M. (1995). "Wanderers between harems and bachelor bands: male Hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus) at Jodhpur in Rajasthan". — Behaviour Vol 132: 255-299. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/156853995X00739
53. Robbins M.M. (1996). "Male–male interactions in heterosexual and all-male wild mountain gorilla groups". — Ethology Vol 102: 942-965. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0310.1996.tb01172.x
54. Schoof V.A. , Jack K.M. , Isbell L.A. (2009). "What traits promote male parallel dispersal in primates?" — Behaviour Vol 146: 701-726. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/156853908X399086
55. Schülke O. , Bhagavatula J. , Vigilant L. , Ostner J. (2010). "Social bonds enhance reproductive success in male macaques". — Curr. Biol. Vol 20: 2207-2210. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2010.10.058
56. Sprague D.S. (1991). "Mating by nontroop males among the Japanese macaques of Yakushima Island". — Folia Primatol. Vol 57: 156-158. http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000156577
57. Sprague D.S. (1992). "Life history and male intertroop mobility among Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata)". — Int. J. Primatol. Vol 13: 437-454. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02547827
58. Sprague D.S. , Suzuki S. , Takahashi H. , Sato S. (1998). "Male life history in natural populations of Japanese macaques: migration, dominance rank, and troop participation of males in two habitats". — Primates Vol 39: 351-363. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02573083
59. Sterck E.H. , Watts D.P. , van Schaik C.P. (1997). "The evolution of female social relationships in nonhuman primates". — Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. Vol 41: 291-309. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s002650050390
60. Sugiyama Y. (1976). "Life history of male Japanese monkeys". — Adv. Stud. Behav. Vol 7: 255-284. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0065-3454(08)60169-2
61. Takahashi H. (2001). "Influence of fluctuation in the operational sex ratio to mating of troop and non-troop male Japanese macaques for four years on Kinkazan Island, Japan". — Primates Vol 42: 183-191. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02629635
62. Takahata Y. , Suzuki S. , Okayasu N. , Sugiura H. , Takahashi H. , Yamagiwa J. , Izawa K. , Agetsuma N. , Hill D. , Saito C. (1998). "Does troop size of wild Japanese macaques influence birth rate and infant mortality in the absence of predators?" — Primates Vol 39: 245-251. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02557737
63. Takatsuki S. , Gorai T. (1994). "Effects of Sika deer on the regeneration of a Fagus crenata forest on Kinkazan Island, northern Japan". — Ecol. Res. Vol 9: 115-120. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02347486
64. Thierry B. , Iwaniuk A.N. , Pellis S.M. (2000). "The influence of phylogeny on the social behaviour of macaques (Primates: Cercopithecidae, genus Macaca)". — Ethology Vol 106: 713-728. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1439-0310.2000.00583.x
65. Tiddi B. , Aureli F. , di Sorrentino E.P. , Janson C.H. , Schino G. (2011). "Grooming for tolerance? Two mechanisms of exchange in wild tufted capuchin monkeys". — Behav. Ecol. Vol 22: 663-669. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/beheco/arr028
66. van Hooff J.A. , van Schaik C.P. (1994). "Male bonds: affiliative relationships among nonhuman primate males". — Behaviour Vol 130: 309-337. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/156853994X00587
67. van Noordwijk M.A. , van Schaik C.P. (1985). "Male migration and rank acquisition in wild long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis)". — Anim. Behav. Vol 33: 849-861. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0003-3472(85)80019-1
68. van Schaik C.P. (1989). "The ecology of social relationships amongst female primates". — In: Comparative socioecology: the behavioural ecology of humans and other mammals ( Standen V. , Foley R.A. , eds). Blackwell Scientific, Oxford, p.  195-218.
69. van Schaik C.P. , van Noordwijk M.A. (1986). "The hidden costs of sociality: intra-group variation in feeding strategies in Sumatran long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis)". — Behaviour Vol 99: 296-315. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/156853986X00595
70. Weilgart L. , Whitehead H. (1997). "Group-specific dialects and geographical variation in coda repertoire in South Pacific sperm whales". — Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. Vol 40: 277-285. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s002650050343
71. Wey T. , Blumstein D.T. , Shen W. , Jordán F. (2008). "Social network analysis of animal behaviour: a promising tool for the study of sociality". — Anim. Behav. Vol 75: 333-344. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2007.06.020
72. Wrangham R.W. (1980). "An ecological model of female-bonded primate groups". — Behaviour Vol 75: 262-300. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/156853980X00447
73. Yamagiwa J. (1986). "Activity rhythm and the ranging of a solitary male mountain gorilla (Gorilla gorilla beringei)". — Primates Vol 27: 273-282. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02382071
74. Yamagiwa J. (1987). "Intra- and inter-group interactions of an all-male group of Virunga mountain gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringei)". — Primates Vol 28: 1-30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02382180
75. Yamagiwa J. , Hill D.A. (1998). "Intraspecific variation in the social organization of Japanese macaques: past and present scope of field studies in natural habitats". — Primates Vol 39: 257-273. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02573076
76. Yamagiwa J. , Mwanza N. (1994). "Day-journey length and daily diet of solitary male gorillas in lowland and highland habitats". — Int. J. Primatol. Vol 15: 207-224. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02735274
http://brill.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1163/1568539x-00003325
Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1163/1568539x-00003325
2016-01-01
2017-12-14

Sign-in

Can't access your account?
  • Tools

  • Add to Favorites
  • Printable version
  • Email this page
  • Subscribe to ToC alert
  • Get permissions
  • Recommend to your library

    You must fill out fields marked with: *

    Librarian details
    Your details
    Why are you recommending this title?
    Select reason:
     
    Behaviour — Recommend this title to your library
  • Export citations
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation