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Obstacles and catalysts to peaceful coexistence in chimpanzees and bonobos

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As our closest living relatives, comparisons of the social lives and behavioural ecologies of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus) provide relevant insights into the evolutionary constraints of peaceful coexistence in Hominid societies. In this review, we compare and contrast findings from the two Pan species in order to examine some of the obstacles and catalysts for peaceful behaviour in our ape relatives. Through comparing the social structures, behavioural mechanisms and ecological drivers for peaceful behaviours in Pan, we develop hypotheses regarding the evolutionary constraints of peaceful co-existence in hominid societies.

Affiliations: 1: aSchool of Psychology, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK ; 2: bPrimate Research Institute, Kyoto University, Inuyama, Aichi, Japan ; 3: cLiving Links Center, Yerkes National Primate Research Center and Psychology Department, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA

*Corresponding author’s e-mail address: Z.Clay@bham.ac.uk
10.1163/1568539X-00003335
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2016-09-27
2017-11-22

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