Cookies Policy
X

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

Work-themed play among young children in foraging and farming communities in Central Africa

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

Access this article

+ Tax (if applicable)
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

image of Behaviour

In small-scale societies children have great access to observing adult roles and this is often reflected in their play, however very few empirical studies of work-themed play have been conducted despite substantial implications that this type of play has for social learning. The current study describes the work-themed play patterns of 1 1/2- to 4-year-old Aka and Bofi foragers and Bofi farmers in Central Africa and examines the extent to which subsistence economy, age, and gender predicted how often children were observed engaging in work-themed play and characteristics of work-themed play. Overall, farmer children engaged in more work-themed play than forager children. Very few gender differences were observed in work-themed play. Age and subsistence economy predicted tendencies for children to be near adults while engaged in work-themed play and to use objects in their work-themed play.

Affiliations: 1: Department of Child and Family Studies, University of Tennessee, 1215 W. Cumberland Avenue, Knoxville, TN 37996-1912, USA

*Corresponding author’s e-mail address: hfouts@utk.edu
10.1163/1568539X-00003362
/content/journals/10.1163/1568539x-00003362
dcterms_title,pub_keyword,dcterms_description,pub_author
10
5
Loading
Loading

Full text loading...

/content/journals/10.1163/1568539x-00003362
Loading

Data & Media loading...

1. Altmann J. (1974). "Observational study of behavior: sampling methods". — Behaviour Vol 49: 227-267. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/156853974X00534
2. Belsky J. , Taylor D.G. , Rovine M. (1984). "The Pennsylvania infant and family development project, II: the development of reciprocal interaction in the mother–infant dyad". — Child Dev. Vol 55: 706-717. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1130123
3. Bloch M.N. , Adler S.M. (1994). "African children’s play and the emergence of the sexual division of labor". — In: Children’s play in diverse cultures ( Roopnarine J.L. , Johnson J.E. , Hooper F.H. , eds). SUNY Press, Albany, NY, p.  148-178.
4. Blurton Jones N. (1993). "The lives of hunter–gatherer children: effects of parental behavior and parental reproductive strategy". — In: Juvenile primates ( Pereira M.E. , Fairbanks L.A. , eds). Oxford University Press, New York, NY, p.  309-326.
5. Bock J. (2002). "Learning, life history, and productivity". — Hum. Nat. Vol 13: 161-197. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12110-002-1007-4
6. Bock J. (2005). "Farming, foraging, and children’s play in the Okavango Delta, Botswana". — In: The nature of play: great apes and humans ( Pellegrini A.D. , Smith P.K. , eds). Guilford Press, New York, NY, p.  254-281.
7. Bock J. , Johnson S.E. (2004). "Subsistence ecology and play among the Okavango Delta peoples of Botswana". — Hum. Nat. Vol 15: 63-81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12110-004-1004-x
8. Bornstein M.H. , Haynes O.M. , O’Reilly A.W. , Painter K.M. (1996). "Solitary and collaborative pretense play in early childhood: sources of individual variation in the development of representational competence". — Child Dev. Vol 67: 2910-2929. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1131759
9. Boyette A.H. (in press). "Children’s play and culture learning in an egalitarian foraging society". — Child Dev.
10. Bretherton I. (1989). "Pretense: the form and function of make-believe play". — Dev. Rev. Vol 9: 383-401. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0273-2297(89)90036-1
11. Burghardt G.M. (2005). The genesis of animal play: testing the limits. — MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.
12. Dansky J.L. (1980). "Make-believe: a mediator of the relationship between play and associative fluency". — Child Dev. Vol 51: 576-579. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1129296
13. de Lorimier S. , Doyle A.-B. , Tessier O. (1995). "Social coordination during pretend play: comparisons with nonpretend play and effects on expressive content". — Merrill-Palmer Q. Vol 41: 497-516.
14. Draper P. , Cashdan E. (1988). "Technological change and child behavior among the !Kung". — Ethnology Vol 27: 339-365. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3773398
15. Edwards C.P. (2000). "Children’s play in cross-cultural perspective: a new look at the six cultures study". — Cross-Cult. Res. Vol 34: 318-338. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/106939710003400402
16. Fagen R. (1981). Animal play behavior. — Oxford University Press, New York, NY.
17. Fein G.G. (1981). "Pretend play in childhood: an integrative review". — Child Dev. Vol 52: 1095-1118. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1129497
18. Fouts H.N. (2004). "Social and emotional contexts of weaning among Bofi farmers and foragers". — Ethnology Vol 43: 65-81. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3773856
19. Fouts H.N. , Lamb M.E. (2009). "Cultural and developmental variation in toddlers’ interactions with other children among two small-scale societies in Central Africa". — Eur. J. Dev. Sci. Vol 3: 389-407.
20. Fouts H.N. , Hewlett B.S. , Lamb M.E. (2005). "Parent–offspring weaning conflicts among the Bofi farmers and foragers of Central Africa". — Curr. Anthropol. Vol 46: 29-50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/425659
21. Fouts H.N. , Hewlett B.S. , Lamb M.E. (2012). "A biocultural approach to breastfeeding interactions in Central Africa". — Am. Anthropol. Vol 114: 123-136. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1548-1433.2011.01401.x
22. Fouts H.N. , Hallam R.A. , Purandare S. (2013). "Gender segregation in early-childhood social play among the Bofi foragers and Bofi farmers in Central Africa". — Am. J. Play Vol 5: 333-356.
23. Fracasso M.P. , Lamb M.E. , Schölmerich A. , Leyendecker B. (1997). "The ecology of mother–infant interaction in Euro-American and immigrant Central American families living in the United States". — Int. J. Behav. Dev. Vol 20: 207-217. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/016502597385298
24. Gaskins S. (1999). "Children’s daily lives in a Mayan village: a case study of culturally constructed roles and activities". — In: Children’s engagement in the world ( Göncü A. , ed.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, p.  25-61.
25. Gosso Y. , Morais M.D.L.S. , Otta E. (2007). "Pretend play of Brazilian children: a window into different cultural worlds". — J. Cross-Cult. Psychol. Vol 38: 539-558. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022022107305237
26. Groos K. (1898). The play of animals. — Appleton, New York, NY. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/12894-000
27. Hewlett B.S. , Boyette A.H. (2013). "Play in hunter–gathers". — In: Evolution, early experience and human development ( Narvaez D. , Panksepp J. , Schore A.N. , Gleason T.R. , eds). Oxford University Press, New York, NY, p.  388-393.
28. Hewlett B.S. , Lamb M.E. , Leyendecker D. , Schölmerich A. (2000). "Internal working models, trust, and sharing among foragers". — Curr. Anthropol. Vol 41: 287-297. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/300135
29. Hill K. , Hurtado A.M. (1996). Ache life history. — Aldine de Gruyter, New York, NY.
30. Kamei N. (2005). "Play among Baka children in Cameroon". — In: Hunter–gatherer childhoods ( Hewlett B.S. , Lamb M.E. , eds). Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick, NJ, p.  343-359.
31. Konner M.J. (1972). "Aspects of the developmental ethology of a foraging people". — In: Ethological studies of child behaviour ( Blurton Jones N. , ed.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, p.  285-304.
32. Lancy D.F. (1996). Playing on the motherground. — Guilford Press, New York, NY.
33. Lancy D.F. (2002). "Cultural constraints on children’s play". — In: Conceptual, social-cognitive, and contextual issues in the fields of play ( Roopnarine J.L. , ed.). Albex, Westport, CT, p.  51-60.
34. Leyendecker B. , Lamb M.E. , Schölmerich A. (1997a). "Studying mother–infant interaction: the effects of context and length of observation in two subcultural groups". — Inf. Behav. Dev. Vol 20: 325-337. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0163-6383(97)90004-7
35. Leyendecker B. , Lamb M.E. , Schölmerich A. , Fricke D.M. (1997b). "Contexts as moderators of observed interactions: a study of Costa Rican mothers and infants from differing socioeconomic backgrounds". — Int. J. Behav. Dev. Vol 21: 15-34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/016502597384965
36. Martini M. (1994). "Peer interactions in Polynesia: a view from the Marquesas". — In: Children’s play in diverse cultures ( Roopnarine J. , Johnson J. , Hooper F. , eds). SUNY Press, Albany, NY, p.  73-103.
37. Morelli G.A. , Rogoff B. , Angelillo C. (2003). "Cultural variation in young children’s access to work or involvement in specialized child-focused activities". — Int. J. Behav. Dev. Vol 27: 264-274. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01650250244000335
38. Munroe R.H. , Munroe R.L. , Shimmin H.S. (1984). "Children’s work in four cultures: determinants and consequences". — Am. Anthropol. Vol 86: 369-379. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/aa.1984.86.2.02a00120
39. Pellegrini A.D. (2009). The role of play in human development. — Oxford University Press, New York, NY. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195367324.001.0001
40. Piaget J. (1951). Play, dreams and imitation in childhood. — Norton, New York, NY.
41. Roopnarine J.L. , Fouts H.N. , Lamb M.E. , Lewis-Elligan T.Y. (2005). "Mothers’ and fathers’ behaviors toward their 3- to 4-month-old infants in lower, middle, and upper socioeconomic African American families". — Dev. Psychol. Vol 41: 723-732. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.41.5.723
42. Smith P.K. (2005). "Social and pretend play in children". — In: The nature of play: great apes and humans ( Pellegrini A.D. , Smith P.K. , eds). Guilford Press, New York, NY, p.  173-209.
43. Walker R. , Hill K. , Kaplan H. , McMillan G. (2002). "Age dependency of strength, skill, and hunting ability among the Ache of Paraguay". — J. Hum. Evol. Vol 42: 639-657. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jhev.2001.0541
44. Whiting B. , Edwards C.P. (1988). "A cross-cultural analysis of sex differences in the behavior of children aged three through 11". — J. Soc. Psychol. Vol 91: 171-188. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224545.1973.9923040
http://brill.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1163/1568539x-00003362
Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1163/1568539x-00003362
2016-07-07
2017-09-20

Sign-in

Can't access your account?
  • Tools

  • Add to Favorites
  • Printable version
  • Email this page
  • Subscribe to ToC alert
  • Get permissions
  • Recommend to your library

    You must fill out fields marked with: *

    Librarian details
    Your details
    Why are you recommending this title?
    Select reason:
     
    Behaviour — Recommend this title to your library
  • Export citations
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation