Cookies Policy
X

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

Mating system, male territoriality and agility as predictors of the evolution of sexual size dimorphism in hummingbirds (Aves: Trochilidae)

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

Access this article

+ Tax (if applicable)
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

image of Behaviour

Male and female animals often exhibit differences in body size; this difference is known as sexual size dimorphism (SSD). Hummingbirds are an excellent model system to test functional hypotheses of SSD because they exhibit a wide range of body sizes and reproductive behaviour between the sexes. Here, using phylogenetic comparative methods, we tested whether mating system, male territoriality and agility predicted the evolution of SSD in this avian family. Our results first suggest that evolutionary increases in male-biased SSD are related to increases in lekking behaviour. Second, we found that male agility is positively related to increases in male biased-SSD albeit this is only likely to occur in males of territorial species. Finally, we found an allometric pattern for SSD consistent with Rensch’s rule that was not explained by our estimates of male competition and agility.

Affiliations: 1: aLaboratorio de Biología Evolutiva, Centro Tlaxcala de Biología de la Conducta, Universidad Autónoma de Tlaxcala, Carretera Tlaxcala-Puebla km 1.5, C. P. 90070 Tlaxcala, México ; 2: cDoctorado en Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Tlaxcala, Carretera Tlaxcala-Puebla km 1.5, C. P. 90070 Tlaxcala, México ; 3: bFacultad de Estudios Superiores Iztacala, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Laboratorio de Ecología, UBIPRO, Av. de los Barrios 1, Los Reyes Iztacala, C. P. 54090 Tlanepantla, México ; 4: dDepartamento de Ciencias Químico-Biológicas, Universidad de las Américas Puebla, San Andrés Cholula, C. P. 72810 Puebla, México

*Corresponding author’s e-mail address: martin.serrano@udlap.mx
10.1163/1568539X-00003469
/content/journals/10.1163/1568539x-00003469
dcterms_title,pub_keyword,dcterms_description,pub_author
10
5
Loading
Loading

Full text loading...

/content/journals/10.1163/1568539x-00003469
Loading

Data & Media loading...

1. Abouheif E., Fairbairn D.J. (1997). "A comparative analysis of allometry for sexual size dimorphism: assessing Rensch’s rule". — Am. Nat. Vol 149: 540-562. [Crossref]
2. Andersson M. (1994). Sexual selection. — Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.
3. Andersson M., Norberg R.Å. (1981). "Evolution of reversed sexual size dimorphism and role partitioning among predatory birds, with a size scaling of flight performance". — Biol. J. Linn. Soc. Vol 15: 105-130. [Crossref]
4. Atwood J.L., Fitz V.L., Bamesberger J. (1991). "Temporal patterns of singing activity at leks of the White-bellied Emerald". — Wilson Bull. Vol 103: 373-386.
5. Bateson M., Healy S.D., Hurly T.A. (2003). "Context-dependent foraging decisions in rufous hummingbirds". — Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B: Biol. Sci. Vol 270: 1271-1276. [Crossref]
6. Blanckenhorn W.U., Meier R., Teder T. (2007). "Rensch’s rule in insects: patterns among and within species". — In: Sex, size and gender roles: evolutionary studies of sexual size dimorphism ( Fairbairn D.J., Blanckenhorn W.U., Székely T., eds). Oxford University Press, Oxford, p.  60-70. [Crossref]
7. Blomberg S.P., Garland T. Jr. (2002). "Tempo and mode in evolution: phylogenetic inertia, adaptation and comparative methods". — J. Evol. Biol. Vol 15: 899-910. [Crossref]
8. Blomqvist D., Johansson O.C., Unger U., Larsson M., Flodin L.Å. (1997). "Male aerial display and reversed sexual size dimorphism in the dunlin". — Anim. Behav. Vol 54: 1291-1299. [Crossref]
9. Brown J.L. (1964). "The evolution of diversity in avian territorial systems". — Wilson Bull. Vol 76: 160-169.
10. Butler M.A., Sawyer S.A., Losos J.B. (2007). "Sexual dimorphism and adaptive radiation in Anolis lizards". — Nature Vol 447: 202-205. [Crossref]
11. Carpenter F.L. (1987). "Food, abundance and territoriality: to defend or not to defend?" — Am. Zool. Vol 27: 387-399. [Crossref]
12. Chai P., Millard D. (1997). "Flight and size constraints: hovering performance of large hummingbirds under maximal loading". — J. Exp. Biol. Vol 200: 2757-2763.
13. Clutton-Brock T.H. (1985). "Size, sexual dimorphism, and polygyny in primates". — In: Size and scaling in primate biology ( Jungers W.L., ed.). Plenum, New York, NY, p.  51-60. [Crossref]
14. Clutton-Brock T.H., Harvey P.H. (1977). "Primate ecology and social organization". — J. Zool. Vol 183: 1-39. [Crossref]
15. Clutton-Brock T.H., Harvey P.H., Rudder B. (1977). "Sexual dimorphism, socionomic sex ratio and body weight in primates". — Nature Vol 269: 797-800. [Crossref]
16. Colwell R.K. (2000). "Rensch’s rule crosses the line: convergent allometry of sexual size dimorphism in hummingbirds and flower mites". — Am. Nat. Vol 156: 495-510.
17. Cox R.M., Skelly S.L., John-Alder H.B. (2003). "A comparative test of adaptive hypotheses for sexual size dimorphism in lizards". — Evolution Vol 57: 1653-1669. [Crossref]
18. Dale J., Dunn P.O., Figuerola J., Lislevand T., Székely T., Whittingham L.A. (2007). "Sexual selection explains Rensch’s rule of allometry for sexual size dimorphism". — Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B: Biol. Sci. Vol 274: 2971-2979. [Crossref]
19. Darwin C. (1871). The descent of man, and selection in relation to sex. — John Murray, London.
20. Dunn P.O., Whittingham L.A., Pitcher T.E. (2001). "Mating systems, sperm competition, and the evolution of sexual dimorphism in birds". — Evolution Vol 55: 161-175. [Crossref]
21. Fairbairn D.J. (1997). "Allometry for sexual size dimorphism: pattern and process in the coevolution of body size in males and females". — Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. Vol 28: 659-687. [Crossref]
22. Fairbairn D.J. (2007). "Introduction: the enigma of sexual size dimorphism". — In: Sex, size and gender roles: evolutionary studies of sexual size dimorphism ( Fairbairn D.J., Blanckenhorn W.U., Székely T., eds). Oxford University Press, Oxford, p.  1-10. [Crossref]
23. Fairbairn D.J. (2013). Odd couples: extraordinary differences between the sexes in the animal kingdom. — Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ. [Crossref]
24. Feinsinger P., Chaplin S.B. (1975). "On the relationship between wing disc loading and foraging strategy in hummingbirds". — Am. Nat. Vol 109: 217-224. [Crossref]
25. Feinsinger P., Colwell R.K., Terborgh J., Chaplin S.B. (1979). "Elevation and the morphology, flight energetics, and foraging ecology of tropical hummingbirds". — Am. Nat. Vol 113: 481-497. [Crossref]
26. Felsenstein J. (1985). "Phylogenies and the comparative method". — Am. Nat. Vol 125: 1-15. [Crossref]
27. Figuerola J. (1999). "A comparative study on the evolution of reversed size dimorphism in monogamous waders". — Biol. J. Linn. Soc. Vol 67: 1-18. [Crossref]
28. Freckleton R.P., Harvey P.H., Pagel M. (2002). "Phylogenetic analysis and comparative data: a test and review of evidence". — Am. Nat. Vol 160: 712-726. [Crossref]
29. Garland T. Jr., Ives A.R. (2000). "Using the past to predict the present: confidence intervals for regression equations in phylogenetic comparative methods". — Am. Nat. Vol 155: 346-364. [Crossref]
30. Garland T. Jr., Harvey P.H., Ives A.R. (1992). "Procedures for the analysis of comparative data using phylogenetically independent contrasts". — Syst. Biol. Vol 41: 18-32. [Crossref]
31. Ghiselin M.T. (1974). The economy of nature and the evolution of sex. — University of California Press, Los Angeles, CA.
32. Gowda V., Temeles E.J., Kress W.J. (2012). "Territorial fidelity to nectar sources by Purple-throated caribs, Eulampis jugularis". — Wilson J. Ornithol. Vol 124: 81-86. [Crossref]
33. Griggio M., Devigili A., Hoi H., Pilastro A. (2009). "Female ornamentation and directional male mate preference in the rock sparrow". — Behav. Ecol. Vol 20: 1072-1078. [Crossref]
34. Griggio M., Valera F., Casas A., Pilastro A. (2005). "Male prefer ornamented females: a field experiment of male choice in the rock sparrow". — Anim. Behav. Vol 69: 1243-1250. [Crossref]
35. Harvey P.H., Pagel M.D. (1991). The comparative method in evolutionary biology. — Oxford University Press, Oxford.
36. Head G. (1995). "Selection on fecundity and variation in the degree of sexual size dimorphism among spider species (class Araneae)". — Evolution Vol 49: 776-781. [Crossref]
37. Hedenström A. (1992). "Flight performance in relation to fuel load in birds". — J. Theor. Biol. Vol 158: 535-537. [Crossref]
38. Hedrick A.V., Temeles E.J. (1989). "The evolution of sexual dimorphism in animals: hypotheses and tests". — Trends Ecol. Evol. Vol 4: 136-138. [Crossref]
39. Höglund J. (1989). "Size and plumage dimorphism in lek-breeding birds: a comparative analysis". — Am. Nat. Vol 134: 72-87. [Crossref]
40. Honěk A. (1993). "Intraspecific variation in body size and fecundity in insects: a general relationship". — Oikos Vol 66: 483-492. [Crossref]
41. Hughes P.M., Rayner J.M.V. (1991). "Addition of artificial loads to long-eared bats Plecotus auritus: handicapping flight performance". — J. Exp. Biol. Vol 161: 285-298.
42. Janzen D. (1971). "Euglossine bees as long-distance pollinators of tropical plants". — Science Vol 171: 203-205. [Crossref]
43. Jehl J.R. Jr., Murray B.G. Jr. (1986). "The evolution of normal and reverse sexual size dimorphism in shorebirds and other birds". — In: Current ornithology ( Johnston R.F., ed.). Plenum, New York, NY, p.  1-86.
44. Jiménez-Arcos V.H., Sanabria-Urbán S., Cueva del Castillo R. (2017). "The interplay between natural and sexual selection in the evolution of sexual size dimorphism in Sceloporus lizards (Squamata: Phrynosomatidae)". — Ecol. Evol. Vol 7: 905-917. [Crossref]
45. Jones K.E., Purvis A. (1997). "An optimum body size for mammals? Comparative evidence from bats". — Funct. Ecol. Vol 11: 751-756. [Crossref]
46. Kodric-Brown A., Brown J.H. (1978). "Influence of economics, interspecific competition, and sexual dimorphism on territoriality of migrant Rufous hummingbirds". — Ecology Vol 59: 285-296. [Crossref]
47. LeBas N.R., Hockham L.R., Ritchie M.G. (2003). "Nonlinear and correlational sexual selection on ‘honest’ female ornamentation". — Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B: Biol. Sci. Vol 270: 2159-2165. [Crossref]
48. Legaspi J.C., Legaspi B.C. Jr. (2005). "Body weights and egg loads in field-collected Podisus maculiventris (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)". — Fla. Entomol. Vol 88: 38-42. [Crossref]
49. Lindenfors P., Tullberg B.S. (1998). "Phylogenetic analyses of primate size evolution: the consequences of sexual selection". — Biol. J. Linn. Soc. Vol 64: 413-447. [Crossref]
50. Lindenfors P., Gittleman J.L., Jones K.E. (2007). "Sexual size dimorphism in mammals". — In: Sex, size and gender roles: evolutionary studies of sexual size dimorphism ( Fairbairn D.J., Blanckenhorn W.U., Székely T., eds). Oxford University Press, Oxford, p.  16-26. [Crossref]
51. Lindenfors P., Tullberg B., Biuw M. (2002). "Phylogenetic analyses of sexual selection and sexual size dimorphism in pinnipeds". — Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. Vol 52: 188-193. [Crossref]
52. Loison A., Gaillard J.M., Pélabon C., Yoccoz N.G. (1999). "What factors shape sexual size dimorphism in ungulates?" — Evol. Ecol. Res. Vol 1: 611-633.
53. Maddison W.P., Maddison D.R. (2015). Mesquite: a modular system for evolutionary analysis. — Version 3.04. Available online at http://mesquiteproject.org.
54. Martins E.P., Hansen T.F. (1997). "Phylogenies and the comparative method: a general approach to incorporating phylogenetic information into the analysis of interspecific data". — Am. Nat. Vol 149: 646-667. [Crossref]
55. McGuire J.A., Witt C.C., Remsen J.V. Jr., Corl A., Rabosky D.L., Altshuler D.L., Dudley R. (2014). "Molecular phylogenetics and the diversification of hummingbirds". — Curr. Biol. Vol 24: 910-916. [Crossref]
56. Metcalfe N.B., Ure S.E. (1995). "Diurnal variation in flight performance and hence potential predation risk in small birds". — Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B: Biol. Sci. Vol 261: 395-400. [Crossref]
57. Mitani J.C., Gros-Louis J., Richards A.F. (1996). "Sexual dimorphism, the operational sex ratio, and the intensity of male competition in polygynous primates". — Am. Nat. Vol 147: 966-980. [Crossref]
58. Moore J.L. (1997). Ecomorphology of rufous hummingbirds: an investigation of maneuverability and agility on four age-sex classes. — MSc Thesis, University of British Columbia, Vancouverm, BC.
59. Oakes E.J. (1992). "Lekking and the evolution of sexual dimorphism in birds: comparative approaches". — Am. Nat. Vol 140: 665-684. [Crossref]
60. Orme D., Freckleton R., Thomas G., Petzoldt T., Fritz S., Isaac N., Pearse W. (2013). caper: comparative analyses of phylogenetics and evolution in R. — R package version 0.5.2. Avaialble online at https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=caper.
61. Owens I.P.F., Hartley I.R. (1998). "Sexual dimorphism in birds: why are there so many different forms of dimorphism?" — Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B: Biol. Sci. Vol 265: 397-407. [Crossref]
62. Pagel M. (1997). "Inferring evolutionary processes from phylogenies". — Zool. Script. Vol 26: 331-348. [Crossref]
63. Pagel M. (1999). "Inferring the historical patterns of biological evolution". — Nature Vol 401: 877-884. [Crossref]
64. Paton D.C., Carpenter F.L. (1984). "Peripheral foraging by territorial rufous hummingbirds: defense by exploitation". — Ecology Vol 65: 1808-1819. [Crossref]
65. Payne R.B. (1984). "Sexual selection, lek and arena behavior, and sexual size dimorphism in birds". — Ornithol. Monogr. Vol 33: 1-52.
66. Pearson O.P. (1954). "The daily energy requirements of a wild Anna hummingbird". — Condor Vol 56: 317-322. [Crossref]
67. Perez-Barbería F.J., Gordon I.J., Pagel M. (2002). "The origins of sexual dimorphism in body size in ungulates". — Evolution Vol 56: 1276-1285. [Crossref]
68. Pilastro A., Griggio M., Matessi G. (2003). "Male rock sparrows adjust their breeding strategy according to female ornamentation: parental of mating investment?" — Anim. Behav. Vol 66: 265-271. [Crossref]
69. Powers D.R., McKee T. (1994). "The effect of food availability on time and energy expenditures of territorial and non-territorial hummingbirds". — Condor Vol 96: 1064-1075. [Crossref]
70. Prenter J., Elwood R.W., Montgomery W.I. (1999). "Sexual size dimorphism and reproductive investment by female spiders: a comparative analysis". — Evolution Vol 53: 1987-1994. [Crossref]
71. R Core Team (2017). R: a language and environment for statistical computing. — R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, available online at http://www.R-project.org/.
72. Raihani G., Székely T., Serrano-Meneses M.A., Pitra C., Goriup P. (2006). "The influence of sexual selection and male agility on sexual size dimorphism in bustards (Otididae)". — Anim. Behav. Vol 71: 833-838. [Crossref]
73. Reiss M.J. (1989). The allometry of growth and reproduction. — Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. [Crossref]
74. Rensch B. (1950). "Die abhangigkeit der relativen sexualdifferenz von der korpergroße". — Bonn Zool. Bull. Vol 1: 58-69.
75. Ridley M., Thompson D.J. (1979). "Size and mating in Asellus aquaticus (Crustacea: Isopoda)". — Z. Tierpsychol. Vol 51: 380-397. [Crossref]
76. Selander R.K. (1972). "Sexual selection and dimorphism in birds". — In: Sexual selection and the descent of man, 1871–1971 ( Campbell B., ed.). Aldine, Chicago, IL, p.  180-230.
77. Serrano-Meneses M.A., Córdoba-Aguilar A., Azpilicueta-Amorín M., González-Soriano E., Székely T. (2008). "Sexual selection, sexual size dimorphism and Rensch’s rule in Odonata". — J. Evol. Biol. Vol 21: 1259-1273. [Crossref]
78. Serrano-Meneses M.A., Székely T. (2006). "Sexual size dimorphism in seabirds: sexual selection, fecundity selection and differential niche-utilisation". — Oikos Vol 113: 385-394. [Crossref]
79. Shine R. (1979). "Sexual selection and sexual dimorphism in the Amphibia". — Copeia: 297-306. [Crossref]
80. Shine R. (1989). "Ecological causes for the evolution of sexual size dimorphism: a review of the evidence". — Q. Rev. Biol. Vol 64: 419-461. [Crossref]
81. Shine R. (1991). "Intersexual dietary divergence and the evolution of sexual dimorphism in snakes". — Am. Nat. Vol 138: 103-122. [Crossref]
82. Skutch A.F. (1958). "Life history of the Violet-headed hummingbird". — Wilson Bull. Vol 70: 5-19.
83. Smith R.J. (1999). "Statistics of sexual size dimorphism". — J. Hum. Evol. Vol 36: 423-458. [Crossref]
84. Sokal R.R., Rohlf F.J. (2012). Biometry: the principles and practice of statistics in biological research. — W.H. Freeman, New York, NY.
85. Stephens P.R., Wiens J.J. (2009). "Evolution of sexual size dimorphisms in emydid turtles: ecological dimorphism, Rensch’s rule, and sympatric divergence". — Evolution Vol 63: 910-925. [Crossref]
86. Székely T., Reynolds J.D., Figuerola J. (2000). "Sexual size dimorphism in shorebirds, gulls and alcids: the influence of sexual and natural selection". — Evolution Vol 54: 1404-1413. [Crossref]
87. Székely T., Freckleton R.P., Reynolds J.D. (2004). "Sexual selection explains Rensch’s rule of size dimorphism in shorebirds". — Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA Vol 101: 12224-12227. [Crossref]
88. Székely T., Lislevand T., Figuerola J. (2007). "Sexual size dimorphism in birds". — In: Sex, size and gender roles: evolutionary studies of sexual size dimorphism ( Fairbairn D.J., Blanckenhorn W.U., Székely T., eds). Oxford University Press, Oxford, p.  27-37. [Crossref]
89. Temeles E.J., Kress W.J. (2003). "Adaptation in a plant-hummingbird association". — Science Vol 300: 630-633. [Crossref]
90. Temeles E.J., Kress W.J. (2010). "Mate choice and mate competition by a tropical hummingbird at a floral resource". — Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B: Biol. Sci. Vol 277: 1607-1613. [Crossref]
91. Temeles E.J., Pan I.L., Brennan J.L., Horwitt J.N. (2000). "Evidence for ecological causation of sexual dimorphism in a hummingbird". — Science Vol 289: 441-443. [Crossref]
92. Temeles E.J., Koulouris C.R., Sander S.E., Kress W.J. (2009). "Effect of flower shape and size on foraging performance and trade-offs in a tropical hummingbird". — Ecology Vol 90: 1147-1161. [Crossref]
93. Tiebout H.M. (1993). "Mechanisms of competition in tropical hummingbirds: metabolic costs for losers and winners". — Ecology Vol 74: 405-418. [Crossref]
94. Trivers R.L. (1972). "Parental investment and sexual selection". — In: Sexual selection and the descent of man, 1871–1971 ( Campbell B., ed.). Heinemann, London, p.  136-179.
95. Warton D.I., Duursma R.A., Falster D.S., Taskinen S. (2012). "smatr 3 — an R package for estimation and inference about allometric lines". — Methods Ecol. Evol. Vol 3: 257-259. [Crossref]
96. Warton D.I., Wright I.J., Falster D.S., Westoby M. (2006). "Bivariate line-fitting methods for allometry". — Biol. Rev. Vol 81: 259-291. [Crossref]
97. Webster M.S. (1992). "Sexual dimorphism, mating system and body size in New World blackbirds (Icterinae)". — Evolution Vol 46: 1621-1641. [Crossref]
98. Witter M.S., Cuthill I.C., Bonser R.H.C. (1994). "Experimental investigations of mass-dependent predation risk in the European starling, Sturnus vulgaris". — Anim. Behav. Vol 48: 201-222. [Crossref]
99. Wolf L.L. (1975). "“Prostitution” behavior in a tropical hummingbird". — Condor Vol 77: 140-144. [Crossref]
100. Wolf L.L., Stiles F.G. (1970). "Evolution of pair cooperation in a tropical hummingbird". — Evolution Vol 24: 759-773. [Crossref]
101. Wolf L.L., Hainsworth F.R. (1971). "Time and energy budgets of territorial hummingbirds". — Ecology Vol 52: 980-988. [Crossref]
102. Wolf L.L., Hainsworth F.R., Gill F.B. (1975). "Foraging efficiencies and time budgets in nectar-feeding birds". — Ecology Vol 56: 117-128. [Crossref]
103. Wolf L.L., Hainsworth F.R., Stiles F.G. (1972). "Energetics of foraging: rate and efficiency of nectar extraction by hummingbirds". — Science Vol 176: 1351-1352. [Crossref]
104. Aldrich E.C. (1945). "Nesting of the Allen hummingbird". — Condor Vol 47: 137-148. [Crossref]
105. Araújo F.P., Almeida-Barbosa A.A., Oliveira P.E. (2011). "Floral resources and hummingbirds on an island of flooded forest in central Brazil". — Flora Vol 206: 827-835. [Crossref]
106. Arizmendi M.C. (1986). Interacción entre los colibríes y su recurso vegetal en Chamela, Jal. — BSc Thesis, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México.
107. Atwood J.L., Fitz V.L., Bamesberger J.E. (1991). "Temporal patterns of singing activity at leks of the White-bellied Emerald". — Wilson Bull. Vol 103: 373-386.
108. Barash D.P. (1972). "Lek behavior in the Broad-tailed hummingbird". — Wilson Bull. Vol 84: 202-203.
109. Bleiweiss R. (1998). "Phylogeny, body mass, and genetic consequences of lek-mating behavior in hummingbirds". — Mol. Biol. Evol. Vol 15: 492-498. [Crossref]
110. Chai P., Millard D. (1997). "Flight and size constraints: hovering performance of large hummingbirds under maximal loading". — J. Exp. Biol. Vol 200: 2757-2763.
111. Colwell R.K. (1973). "Competition and coexistence in a simple tropical community". — Am. Nat. Vol 107: 737-760. [Crossref]
112. Colwell R.K. (1989). "Hummingbirds of the Juan Fernández islands: natural history, evolution and population status". — Ibis Vol 131: 548-566. [Crossref]
113. Colwell R.K. (2000). "Rensch’s rule crosses the line: convergent allometry of sexual size dimorphism in hummingbirds and flower mites". — Am. Nat. Vol 156: 495-510.
114. Cotton P.A. (1998a). "The hummingbird community of a lowland Amazonian rainforest". — Ibis Vol 140: 512-521. [Crossref]
115. Cotton P.A. (1998b). "Coevolution in an Amazonian hummingbird-plant community". — Ibis Vol 140: 639-646. [Crossref]
116. Davis T.A.W. (1958). "The displays and nests of three forest hummingbirds of British Guiana". — Ibis Vol 100: 31-39. [Crossref]
117. del Hoyo J., Elliott A., Sargatal J., Christie D.A., de Juana E. (2015). Handbook of the birds of the world alive. — Lynx Editions, available online at http://www.hbw.com/family/hummingbirds-trochilidae.
118. Díaz-Valenzuela R., Lara-Rodríguez N.Z., Ortiz-Pulido R., González-García F., Ramírez-Bautista A. (2011). "Some aspects of the reproductive biology of the Mexican Sheartail (Doricha eliza) in Central Veracruz". — Condor Vol 113: 177-182. [Crossref]
119. Feinsinger P. (1976). "Organization of a tropical guild of nectarivorous birds". — Ecol. Monogr. Vol 46: 257-291. [Crossref]
120. Feinsinger P., Colwell R.K. (1978). "Community organization among Neotropical nectar-feeding birds". — Integr. Comp. Biol. Vol 18: 779-795.
121. Feo T.J., Musser J.M., Berv J., Clark C.J. (2015). "Divergence in morphology, calls, song, mechanical sounds, and genetics supports species status for the Inaguan hummingbird (Trochilidae: Calliphlox “evelynae” lyrura)". — Auk Vol 132: 248-264. [Crossref]
122. Fox R.P. (1954). "Plumages and territorial behavior of the Lucifer hummingbid in the Chisos Mountains, Texas". — Auk Vol 71: 465-466. [Crossref]
123. Gowda V., Temeles E.J., Kress W.J. (2012). "Territorial fidelity to nectar sources by Purple-throated caribs, Eulampis jugularis". — Wilson J. Ornithol. Soc. Vol 124: 81-86. [Crossref]
124. Hamilton W.J. III (1965). "Sun-oriented display of the Anna’s hummingbird". — Wilson Bull. Vol 77: 38-44.
125. Hernández-Vega N.J. (2014). Evolución del dimorfismo sexual en colibríes (Aves: Trochilidae). — MSc Thesis, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México.
126. Höglund J. (1989). "Size and plumage dimorphism in lek-breeding birds: a comparative analysis". — Am. Nat. Vol 134: 72-87. [Crossref]
127. Höglund J., Alatalo R. (1995). Leks. Monographs in behavior and ecology. — Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.
128. Howell S.N.G. (2003). Hummingbirds of North America, the photographic guide. — Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.
129. Hurly T.A., Scott R.D., Healy S.D. (2001). "The function of displays of male Rufous hummingbirds". — Condor Vol 103: 647-651. [Crossref]
130. Johnsgard P.A. (1997). The hummingbirds of North America. — Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.
131. Kodric-Brown A., Brown J.H., Byers G.S., Gori D.F. (1984). "Organization of a tropical island community of hummingbirds and flowers". — Ecology Vol 65: 1358-1368. [Crossref]
132. López-Segoviano G. (2012). Comportamiento territorial y preferencias de forrajeo del colibrí migratorio Selasphorus rufus dentro de un sitio invernal. — MSc Thesis, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México.
133. MacDougall-Shackleton E., Harbison H. (1998). "Singing behavior of lekking green hermits". — Condor Vol 100: 149-152. [Crossref]
134. Martínez-García V., Lara C., Ornelas J.F. (2013). "Lek characteristics and the static male song of the green violet-ear (Colibri thalassinus) during a 3-year study in a temperate forest of Central Mexico". — Ornitol. Neotrop. Vol 24: 183-200.
135. Ornelas J.F. (1995). Radiation in the genus Amazilia: a comparative approach to understanding the diversification of hummingbirds. — PhD Thesis, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.
136. Ornelas J.F. (2010). "Nests, eggs, and young of the Azure-crowned hummingbird (Amazilia cyanocephala)". — Wilson J. Ornithol. Vol 122: 592-597. [Crossref]
137. Ornelas J.F., González C., Uribe J. (2002). "Complex vocalizations and aerial displays of the Amethyst-throated hummingbird (Lampornis amethystinus)". — Auk Vol 119: 1141-1149. [Crossref]
138. Ortiz-Pulido R., Peterson A.T., Robbins M.B., Díaz R., Navarro-Sigüenza A.G., Escalona-Segura G. (2002). "The Mexican Sheartail (Doricha eliza): morphology, behavior, distribution, and endangered status". — Wilson Bull. Vol 114: 153-160. [Crossref]
139. Payne R.B. (1984). "Sexual selection, lek and arena behavior, and sexual size dimorphism in birds". — Ornithol. Monogr. Vol 33: 1-52.
140. Pizo M.A. (2012). "Lek behavior of the Plovercrest (Stephanoxis lalandi, Trochilidae)". — Wilson J. Ornithol. Vol 124: 106-112. [Crossref]
141. Pizo M.A., Silva W.R. (2001). "The dawn lek of the Swallow-tailed hummingbird". — Wilson Bull. Vol 113: 388-397. [Crossref]
142. Ramjohn C.L., Lucas F.B., Hayes F.E., Ballah S.T., Johnson N.C., Garcia K.M. (2003). "Lek mating behavior of the Sooty-capped hermit (Phaethornis augusti) in the Paria Peninsula of Venezuela". — J. Field Ornithol. Vol 74: 205-209. [Crossref]
143. Rodríguez-Flores C.I. (2009). Dinámica de las estrategias de forrajeo por néctar en colibríes (Aves: Trochilidae) en la Reserva de la Biosfera Sierra de Manantlán (Jalisco, México). — MSc Thesis, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México.
144. Rodríguez-Flores C.I., Stiles F.G. (2005). "Análisis ecomorfológico de una comunidad de colibríes ermitaños (Trochilidae, Phaetorninae) y sus flores en la Amazonia Colombiana". — Ornitol. Colomb. Vol 3: 7-27.
145. Rowley J.S. (1966). "Breeding records of birds in the Sierra Madre del Sur, Oaxaca, Mexico". — Proc. West. Found. Vertebr. Zool. Vol 1: 107-204.
146. Schuchmann K.L., Weller A.A., Heynen I. (2000). "Biogeography and taxonomy of the Andean hummingbird genus Haplophaedia Simon (Aves: Trochilidae), with the description of a new subspecies from southern Ecuador". — Orn. Anz. Vol 39: 17-42.
147. Skutch A.F. (1964). "Life histories of Hermit hummingbirds". — Auk Vol 81: 5-25. [Crossref]
148. Snow B.K. (1973). "The behavior and ecology of hermit hummingbirds in the Kanaku Mountains, Guyana". — Wilson Bull. Vol 85: 163-177.
149. Stiles F.G. (1982). "Aggressive and courtship displays of the male Anna’s hummingbird". — Condor Vol 84: 208-225. [Crossref]
150. Stiles F.G. (1983). "Systematics of the southern forms of Selasphorus (Trochilidae)". — Auk Vol 100: 311-325.
151. Stiles F.G. (1995). "Behavioral, ecological and morphological correlates of foraging for arthropods by the hummingbirds of a tropical wet forest". — Condor Vol 97: 853-878. [Crossref]
152. Stiles F.G., Wolf L.L. (1979). "Ecology and evolution of lek mating behavior in the long-tailed hermit hummingbird". — Ornithol. Monograph. Vol 27: 1-78.
153. Tamm S., Armstrong D.P., Tooze Z.J. (1989). "Display behavior of male Calliope hummingbirds during the breeding season". — Condor Vol 91: 272-279. [Crossref]
154. Weller A.A. (2000). "Biogeography, geographic variation and habitat preference in the Amazilia hummingbird, Amazilia amazilia Lesson (Aves: Trochilidae), with notes on the status of Amazilia alticola Gould". — J. Ornithol. Vol 141: 93-101. [Crossref]
155. Weller A.A., Schuchmann K.-L. (2004). "Biogeographic and taxonomic revision of the trainbearers Lesbia (Trochilidae), with the description of two new subspecies". — Ornithol. Anz. Vol 43: 115-136.
156. Weske J.S., Terborgh J.W. (1977). "Phaethornis hoepckeae, a new species of hummingbird from Perú". — Condor Vol 79: 143-147. [Crossref]
157. Wiley R.H. (1971). "Song groups in a singing assembly of little hermits". — Condor Vol 73: 28-35. [Crossref]
158. Wolf L.L. (1969). "Female territoriality in a tropical hummingbird". — Auk Vol 86: 490-504. [Crossref]
159. Wolf L.L. (1975). "Female territoriality in the Purple-throated Carib". — Auk Vol 92: 511-522. [Crossref]
160. Wolf L.L., Stiles F.G. (1970). "Evolution of pair cooperation in a tropical hummingbird". — Evolution Vol 24: 759-773. [Crossref]
161. Colwell R.K. (2000). "Rensch’s rule crosses the line: convergent allometry of sexual size dimorphism in hummingbirds and flower mites". — Am. Nat. Vol 156: 495-510.
162. Dale J., Dunn P.O., Figuerola J., Lislevand T., Székely T., Whittingham L.A. (2007). "Sexual selection explains Rensch’s rule of allometry for sexual size dimorphism". — Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B: Biol. Sci. Vol 274: 2971-2979. [Crossref]
163. Payne R.B. (1984). "Sexual selection, lek and arena behaviour, and sexual size dimorphism in birds". — Ornithol. Monogr. Vol 33: 1-52.
http://brill.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1163/1568539x-00003469
Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1163/1568539x-00003469
2017-12-31
2018-06-17

Sign-in

Can't access your account?
  • Tools

  • Add to Favorites
  • Printable version
  • Email this page
  • Subscribe to ToC alert
  • Get permissions
  • Recommend to your library

    You must fill out fields marked with: *

    Librarian details
    Your details
    Why are you recommending this title?
    Select reason:
     
    Behaviour — Recommend this title to your library
  • Export citations
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation