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The Influence of Salinity and Temperature on the Reproduction of Arctodiaptomus Salinus (Daday, 1885) (Copepoda, Calanoida) In The Temporary Salt Marsh, "La Sebkha Zima" (Morocco)

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This work reports the results of a both experimental and in situ study on the influence of salinity and temperature on the reproduction of Arctodiaptomus salinus from the temporary marsh "Sebkha Zima" (Morocco). The study is based on following three hydrological cycles of one year each, i. e., from the time of flooding until drying out, at three stations with different salinities, completed by an experimental investigation. It appears that the sex ratio shows a dominance of females during the cold season and a dominance of males in the warm period, which results from a greater tolerance of the males with regard to environmental changes. The drop in the numbers of females following periods of high production indicates massive mortality of these at the end of an annual cycle. Under experimental conditions, increasing the salinity reduces the reproductive potential of the species, its net reproductive capacity decreasing from a maximum of 147.2 at 10‰ to a minimum of 30.4 at 35‰. Though raising the temperature reduces the body size of the ovigerous female and of its brood, it shows a positive effect on population structure. Thus, net reproductive capacity is 2.5 at 10°C and rises to 208 at 23°C, while at these same temperatures the intrinsic natural growth rate of the population increases from 0.05 to 0.88, respectively. Positive correlations between the body dimensions of ovigerous females, the number of eggs, and the size of the egg-sac have been observed, always in direct relation to environmental parameters. This indicates, that the effects of both temperature and salinity on fecundity only act through the mediation of the relationships salinity-body size and temperature-body size, i. e., of the female. Le présent travail concerne l'étude expérimentale et in situ de l'influence de la salinité et de la température sur la reproduction d' Arctodiaptomus salinus, du marais temporaire salé "La Sebkha Zima" (Maroc). L'étude est basée sur un suivi de trois cycles hydrologiques, chaque d'un an (de la mise en eau jusqu'à l'assec), au niveau de trois stations, de différentes salinités, appuyée d'une étude expérimentale. Il en ressort que le sex-ratio montre une prévalence des femelles pendant la saison froide et celui des mâles pendant la saison chaude, due à la haute tolérance des mâles aux changements du milieu. La chute de l'effectif des femelles après les périodes de forte production reflète une mortalité massive de ces dernières à la fin du cycle annuel. Dans les conditions expérimentales, l'augmentation de la salinité diminue les potentialités de l'espèce, le taux net de reproduction est maximale à 10‰ (147,2) et minimal à 35‰ (30,4). Alors que l'augmentation de la température bien qu'elle diminue la taille de la femelle ovigère et de ses portées, elle a un effet positif sur la structure de la population. Ainsi, le taux net de reproduction est de 2,5 à 10°C, augmente à 208 à 23°C, et le taux intrinsèque d'accroissement naturel de la population est de 0,05 à 10°C et augmente à 0,88 à 23°C. Des corrélations positives entre les dimensions des femelles ovigères, le nombre d'oeufs et la taille du sac ovigère, toujours en rapport avec les facteurs du milieu, sont observées. Elles démontrent que l'effet de la salinité ou de la température sur la fécondité se fait par le biais de la relation salinité-taille ou température-taille de la femelle.


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