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A review of karyological studies on the Cyclopoida (Copepoda)

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A survey of chromosome studies among cyclopoid copepods is provided on the basis of new findings and data from the literature. Standard karyotypes of the Cyclopoida reveal substantial diversity in karyotypes. In some genera there are major karyotypic differences between species, whereas other groups appear to be highly conservative. Acanthocyclops americanus has the lowest known chromosome number, 2n = 10, and Megacyclops viridis the highest, 2n = 24, among cyclopoid copepods. Chromosome morphology has not successfully been employed in phylogenetic studies yet, since karyotypes are known only for about 4% of the copepod families and 8% of cyclopoid families. It is difficult to homologize copepod chromosomes, as chromosome shape provides only limited information and chromosome number is arbitrary, since fissions and fusions seem likely to occur independently. However, cytogenetic information may provide a useful evolutionary tool, particularly in the discovery of sibling or cryptic taxa, and for the clarification of generic boundaries. Es wird eine Übersicht zu Chromosomenstudien an cyclopoiden Copepoden gegeben auf der Grundlage eigener Untersuchungen und Daten aus der Literatur. Karyotypen der Cyclopoida zeigen eine erhebliche Diversität. Bei einigen Gattungen bestehen Artunterschiede während andere Taxa eher konservative Merkmalsausprägungen aufweisen. Unter den Cyclopoida weist Acanthocyclops americanus die niedrigste bekannte Chromosomenanzahl von 2n = 10 auf, und Megacyclops viridis die höchste von 2n = 24. Die Chromosomenmorphologie ist noch nicht erfolgreich in phylogenetischen Studien genutzt worden, da Karyotypen von nur etwa 4% der Copepodenfamilien und von 8% der Cyclopidenfamilien bekannt sind. Es ist schwierig die Chromosomen der Cyclopoida und der Copepoda im allgemeinen zu homologisieren, da ihre Struktur nur eingeschränkt brauchbare Informationen bereitstellt. Die Nutzung der Chromosomenanzahl ist problematisch, da Ploidien und Verschmelzungen verbreitet sind und unabhängig voneinender entstehen können. Demgegenűuber stellen cytogenetische Infomationen ein brauchbares Instrumentarium zur Verfűugung fűur das Erkennen von kryptischen Arten oder Geschwisterarten und fűur die Abgrenzung von Gattungen.


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Affiliations: 1: Zhejiang University, Zi Jin Gang Campus, 388 Yu Hang Tang Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058, China; 2: Institute of Marine Biology, National Taiwan Ocean University, College of Life Sciences, 2 Pei-Ning Road, Keelung 202, Taiwan, ROC


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