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An update on the global stressors and constraints affecting Daphnia populations in large Chilean Patagonian lakes (39-51°S)

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The zooplankton communities in Chilean Patagonian lakes (39-51°S) are characterized by the low presence of daphniid cladocerans, i.e., under conditions of the usual native oligotrophy and, thus, low mineral concentrations. Nevertheless, from some northern Patagonian lakes (39-41°S) a marked abundance of daphniids has been reported. According to the literature, as well as evidence from field observations, the main causes of such marked changes in the local zooplankton assemblages would be changes in phytoplankton quantity and quality, providing increased energetic resources for the zooplankton communities. Such energetic resources might decrease the stress effects of low calcium concentrations, as calcium constitutes an essential nutrient for caparace formation in Daphniidae; in addition, energetic expenses needed to perform vertical migrations due to fish predation and exposure to natural ultraviolet radiation can better be provided for. This is a markedly different situation compared to North Patagonian lakes, where daphniid abundance and number of species are related only to phytoplankton quantity and quality in term of phosphorus/nitrogen molar ratio.

Affiliations: 1: 1Escuela de Ciencias Ambientales, Facultad de Recursos Naturales, Universidad Católica de Temuco, Casilla 15-D, Temuco, Chile ; 2: 2Núcleo de Estudios Ambientales, Universidad Católica de Temuco, Casilla 15-D, Temuco, Chile ; 3: 3Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Università Degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Milan, Italy ; 4: 4Laboratorio de Ecotoxicología, Departamento de Zoología, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Oceanográficas, Universidad de Concepción, P.O. Box 160-C, Concepción, Chile


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