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image of Crustaceana

Many factors (e.g., food conversion efficiency, stocking density, harvest size, product value and food value) determine the economic profitability of shrimp cultures. Food conversion efficiency (FCE) and body size are negatively related. During ontogenetic development, the efficiency with which animals convert ingested food into body mass gradually declines, either by a less efficient digestion or by a less efficient incorporation of digested material. Food intake increases with increasing body weight, while food conversion efficiency decreases; at intermediate body sizes the conversion of food to biomass reaches a maximum. The optimal size for harvesting depends on the food/product price ratio. Cultivation can only be profitable when FCE is at least higher than the food/product price ratio (Vf/Vp). Equations are derived giving the daily profit of a culture cycle, in relation to the various variables involved. From these the optimal harvest weight can be assessed. Food conversion efficiency and optimal harvest weight are physiologically determined but can markedly be increased by improved food quality (affecting FCE), additional oxygen supply, and removal of metabolic waste products (affecting maximal stocking densities). A cultured species should reach a marketable size long before it reaches its maximal size, viz., before food conversion efficiency drops to low values.

De nombreux facteurs (par ex., l'efficacite d'utilisation de l'aliment, la densite du stock, la taille de recolte, la valeur du produit et la valeur nutritionnelle) determinent le benefice economique des elevages de crevettes. L'efficacite d'utilisation de l'aliment (FCE) et la taille du corps sont correlees negativement. Au cours du developpement ontogenique, l'efficacite avec laquelle les animaux transforment la nourriture ingeree en masse corporelle diminue graduellement, soit en raison d'une digestion moins efficace, soit par une assimilation moins efficace du materiel digere. La prise de nourriture augmente en meme temps que le poids du corps tandis que l'efficacite de conversion de la nourriture diminue; a des tailles intermediaires, la conversion de la nourriture en biomasse atteint un maximum. La taille optimale pour la recolte depend du rapport prix de la nourriture/prix du produit (Vf/Vp). L'elevage est seulement rentable quand FCE est au moins superieur a ce dernier rapport (Vf/Vp). Des equations en sont tirees, indiquant le profit journalier d'un cycle d'elevage, en fonction des diverses variables impliquees. On peut en deduire le poids optimal de recolte. L'efficacite de transformation de la nourriture et le poids optimal de recolte sont determines physiologiquement mais peuvent etre augmentes de facon marquee par une qualite de nourriture amelioree (affectant FCE), un apport supplementaire en oxygene et l'elimination des dechets du metabolisme (affectant les densites maximales du stock). Une espece d'elevage devrait atteindre une taille commercialisable longtemps avant qu'elle n'atteigne sa taille maximale, c'est a dire, avant que l'efficacite de conversion de la nourriture ne diminue trop.


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