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Sedentary endoparasitic nematodes as a model for other plant parasitic nematodes

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For more content, see Nematologica.

Plant parasitic nematodes are known to cause a severe reduction in crop yield. Recently much effort is being put to engineering new nematode-resistant crop cultivars. Plant parasitic nematodes occur in three widely separated orders: Triplonchida, Dorylaimida and Tylenchida. All triplonchid and dorylaimid plant parasitic nematodes are migratory ectoparasites of roots. Within the Tylenchida, several different types of plant parasitism can be recognised. The sedentary endoparasites have the most complex interaction with their host, and are responsible for the vast majority of the agricultural damage. This causes most research to be concentrated on two groups of the sedentary endoparasitic nematodes: cyst- and root-knot nematodes. Both induce specialised feeding structures in the vascular cylinder of the plant root. The mechanism of phytoparasitism of the cyst- and root-knot nematodes is reviewed, of which some aspects will be applicable to the study of the other plant parasitic nematodes.

Les nématodes parasites de plantes sont connus pour provoquer de sévères réductions dans les rendements des cultures. Actuellement, un effort se développe pour créer de nouveaux cultivars résistants aux nématodes. Les nématodes parasite de plantes appartiennent à trois ordres très éloignés: Triplonchida, Dorylaimida et Tylenchida. Tous les nématodes parasites de plantes chez les Triplonchida et Dorylaimida sont des ectoparasites migrateurs. Chez les Tylenchida, plusieurs types différents de parasitisme peuvent être identifiés. Les endoparasites sédentaires ont l’interaction la plus complexe avec leur hôte et sont responsables de la plus grande part des dégâts agricoles. C’est la raison pour laquelle la plupart des recherches sont concentrées sur deux groupes de nématodes endoparasites sédentaires, les nématodes à kystes et les nématodes galligènes. Ces deux groupes induisent des structures d’alimentation spécialisées dans les tissus vasculaires de la racine végétale. Le mécanisme parasitaire des nématodes à kystes et galligènes est revu, certaines de leurs caractéristiques pouvant être applicables à l’étude des autres nématodes phytoparasites.


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