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Influence of temperature on the infectivity of entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernema and Heterorhabditis spp.) to larvae and pupae of the vine weevil Otiorhynchus sulcatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

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The susceptibilities of early and late instar vine weevil larvae and pupae to three species of entomopathogenic nematodes, indigenous to the UK, were tested in a series of bioassays. Steinernema kraussei (isolates L017 and L137), S. feltiae (the commercial product Nemasys®) and Heterorhabditis megidis (the commercial product Nemasys® H, reared both in vivo in Galleria mellonella larvae and in vitro), were tested at 6, 10 and 18°C for 2 weeks (early instars of O. sulcatus) or 3 weeks (late instars and pupae of O. sulcatus). Nematodes were applied to over 3800 larvae or pupae and there were over 400 untreated controls. Each insect was examined subsequently to determine mortality, and parasitised specimens were dissected to establish whether adult nematodes had developed. Differences in pathogenicity between H. megidis reared in vitro and in vivo were demonstrated. S. kraussei (L137) was consistently the most virulent nematode isolate at low temperatures. The results revealed a significant (P < 0.001) effect of temperature on small larvae of O. sulcatus, but also showed differential levels of mortality, not due to nematodes, for both small larvae and pupae. The use of Abbott's correction for control mortality is challenged and the validity of competing risks theory examined.

In einer Reihe von Biotests wurde die Anfälligkeit von frühen und späten Larvenstadien sowie Puppen des Rüsselkäfers Otiorhynchus sulcatus gegenüber drei in UK einheimischen entomopathogenen Nematoden untersucht. Steinernema kraussei (isolate L017 und L137), S. feltiae (Handelsprodukt Nemasys®) und Heterorhabditis megidis (Handelsprodukt Nemasys® H, beide in vivo an Larven von Galleria mellonella und in vitro gezüchtet) wurden bei 6, 10 and 18°C für zwei Wochen (frühe Stadien von O. sulcatus) oder drei Wochen (späte Stadien und Puppen von O. sulcatus) geprüft. Über 3800 Larven oder Puppen wurden mit Nematoden behandelt, daneben gab es über 400 unbehandelte Kontrollen. Anschliessend wurde jedes Insekt untersucht, um die Mortalität zu bestimmen. Parasitierte Exemplare wurden aufpräpariert um festzustellen, ob sich adulte Nematoden entwickelt hatten. Zwischen in vitro und in vivo kultivierten H. megidis konnten Unterschiede in der Pathogenität festgestellt werden. S. kraussei (L137) war bei niedrigen Temperaturen durchgehend das virulenteste Isolat. Die Ergebnisse zeigten eine signifikante (P < 0.001) Wirkung der Temperatur auf kleine Larven von O. sulcatus. Sie zeigten für kleine Larven und Puppen aber auch unterschiedliche Mortlitätsgrade an, die nicht auf Nematoden zurückgingen. Die Anwendung von Abbott's Korrektur zur Prüfung der Mortalität wird kritisch hinterfragt, die Gültigkeit der Theorie der “competing risks” wird geprüft.

Affiliations: 1: Department of Entomological Sciences, Horticulture Research International, Wellesbourne, Warwick CV35 9EF, UK; 2: Biometrics Department, Horticulture Research International, Wellesbourne, Warwick CV35 9EF, UK


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