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Enzyme phenotypes of Meloidogyne spp. populations

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Enzyme phenotypes, specifically esterases (EST), malate dehydrogenase (MDH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) were used to characterise different species of Meloidogyne, mostly from Brazil and from some American countries. Esterase activity was highly polymorphic and was the most useful in the identification of the different species. Using this enzyme it is possible to characterise and identify the four major species: M. javanica, M. incognita, M. arenaria and M. hapla from a large collection of 111 populations of Meloidogyne spp. Another seven less common species (M. coffeicola, M. paranensis, M. konaensis, M. exigua, M. graminicola, M. oryzae, M. mayaguensis), with only one or a few populations of each, were studied and exhibited species-specific EST phenotypes. The two enzymes (EST and MDH) differentiated M. graminicola and M. oryzae. It was possible to detect atypical (unidentified) phenotypes: three from Brazil, one from the USA and another from Chile. The minor bands of esterase profiles provided information to detect intraspecific variability among some populations of M. incognita and six populations of M. exigua. Profiles of MDH permitted separation of two isolates of M. javanica from Brazil.

Phénotypes enzymatiques de populations de Meloidogyne - Les phénotypes enzymatiques de l'estérase (EST), la malate déshydrogènase (MDH), la superoxide dismutase (SOD) et la glutamate-oxaloacétate transaminase (GOT) ont été utilisés de manière systématique afin de caractériser plusieurs espèces de Meloidogyne provenant principalement du Brésil et de quelques pays des régions américaines. C'est l'activité estérasique qui a présenté le plus grand polymorphisme et s'est montrée la plus utile dans la caractérisation des espèces. A l'aide de cette enzyme il a été possible de caractériser et d'identifier les quatre espèces majeures de Meloidogyne: M. javanica, M. incognita, M. arenaria, et M. hapla au sein d'une collection de 111 populations de Meloidogyne spp. Sept autres espèces moins fréquentes (M. coffeicola, M. paranensis, M. konaensis, M. exigua, M. graminicola, M. oryzae, M. mayaguensis) comportant seulement quelques populations de chaque espèces ont été étudiées et ont également montré des phénotypes estérasiques spécifiques. Les deux enzymes (EST et MDH) ont permis la différenciation de M. graminicola et de M.oryzae. Il a été également possible de détecter des phénotypes atypiques non encore identifiés chez trois populations originaires du Brésil, une des USA et une du Chili. Par ailleurs, les bandes mineures des profils estérasiques ont apporté des informations sur la variabilité intra-spécifique chez quelques populations de M. incognita et six populations de M. exigua, tandis que l'observation des profils enzymatiques de la malate déshydrogènase (MDH) a permis la distinction de deux populations de M. javanica du Brésil.

Affiliations: 1: EMBRAPA/CENARGEN, C.P.02372, 70849-970 Brasília; 2: IRD, B.P.8006, Fort de France 97259, Martinique, French West Indies


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