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Evaluation of Trichoderma virens and Burkholderia cepacia for antagonistic activity against root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita

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The bacterium Burkholderia cepacia (strain Bc-2) and the fungus Trichoderma virens (strain Gl-3) were investigated for activity against the nematode Meloidogyne incognita. Culture filtrates from Bc-2 and Gl-3 contained extracellular factors that inhibited egg hatch and second-stage juvenile (J2) mobility. Size fractionation results and lack of detectable chitinase or protease activities from Bc-2 and Gl-3 culture filtrates suggested that the inhibitory factors in the in vitro assays were non-enzymic. Tomato root explant cultures of M. incognita treated with T.virens culture filtrate had 42% fewer eggs and J2 per g of roots than cultures treated with control medium that had not been inoculated with T. virens. In glasshouse tests with tomato, Bc-2 and Gl-3 were applied individually as seed coatings and as root drenches in both viable and non-viable formulations. At the 65-day harvest, non-viable B. cepacia was the only treatment that suppressed eggs and J2 per g of roots (29% suppression) compared to water controls.

Evaluation de l'activité antagoniste de Trichoderma virens et Burkholderia cepacia envers le nématode Meloidogyne incognita - La bactérie Burkholderia cepacia (souche Bc-2) et le champignon Trichoderma virens (souche G1-3) ont été étudiés dans l'optique de leur action envers le nématode Meloidogyne incognita. Les filtrats de culture de Bc-2 et de G1-3 contiennent des facteurs extracellulaires inhibant l'éclosion et la motilité des juvéniles de deuxième stade (J2) du nématode. Les résultats de fractionnements relatifs à la taille et la nondétection d'une activité chitinasique ou protéasique dans les filtrats de culture de Bc-2 et G1-3 suggèrent que les facteurs inhibant présents lors des expériences in vitro ne sont pas de nature enzymatique. Des élevages de M. incognita sur explants de racines de tomate traités avec des filtrats de culture de T. virens produisent des oeufs et des J2 en nombre inférieur de 42% à celui d'élevages traités par un milieu témoin, non inoculé avec T. virens. Lors d'essais en serre sur tomate, Bc-2 et G1-3 ont été appliqués séparément, soit en pralinage des semences, soit sur la tranchée, et en formulation vivante ou non-vivante. A la récolte, après 65 jours, la formulation non-vivante de B. cepacia s'est révélée le seul traitement diminuant le nombre d'oeufs et de J2 par g de racines: moins 29% par rapport au témoin ne contenant que de l'eau.

Affiliations: 1: USDA, ARS, Nematology Laboratory, Bldg. 011A, Rm. 165B, BARC-West, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, MD 20705-2350,USA; 2: Faculty of Agriculture, Botany Department, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt; 3: USDA, ARS, Biocontrol of Plant Diseases Laboratory,Bldg. 011A, Rm. 275, BARC-West, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, MD 20705-2350, USA


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