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Cuticular disruption and mortality of Caenorhabditis elegans exposed to culture filtrate of Byssochlamys nivea Westling

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For more content, see Nematologica.

A strain of a Byssochlamys nivea, isolated from saline mud in Western Australia as a part of statewide survey of soil fungi for nematophagous activity, was evaluated for its effect on nematodes. Culture filtrate of the fungus grown on potato dextrose broth for 7 days caused structural changes in the cuticle, aggregation of individuals, and mortality of Caenorhabditis elegans. In addition, the culture filtrate completely inhibited hatching of C. elegans eggs. Exudates from agar colonies also caused cuticular disruption and mortality of C. elegans. The cuticular disruption observed, not reported in nematodes before, was initiated in the labial region and spread towards the posterior region of the nematode within 10 min of application. This reaction occurred only in live nematodes. Cuticular disruption and mortality caused by the culture filtrate varied according to growth conditions. The active compound(s) in the culture filtrate were thermostable (100°C for 1 h); however freezing the culture filtrate (-20°C for 2 days) eliminated the activities, as did dialysis (<14 000 molecular weight). Cuticular disruption and mortality were also observed when the nematode was exposed to culture filtrates of two other strains of B. nivea supplied by CBS, The Netherlands. The culture filtrate also inhibited in vitro growth of the plant-pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum, Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, Phytophthora cinnamomi, Pythium irregulare and Rhizoctonia solani.

Affiliations: 1: Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, W.A. 6009, Australia; 2: Organic Chemistry, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, W.A. 6009, Australia; 3: Department of Plant and Microbial Sciences, University of Canterbury, Christchurch 8020, New Zealand; 4: Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures, Uppsalalaan 8, 3584 CT Utrecht, The Netherlands


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