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Suppressive effects of composts against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica on tomato

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For more content, see Nematologica.

Suppressive effects of two composts, from cattle manure and grape marc, on the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica were tested in pot and in vitro experiments. No root galls were found on tomato roots grown in soils containing 10 or 25% (v/v) cattle manure compost, and very few on those grown in 50% grape marc compost. Significant reductions in galling index were also found on tomato plants grown in soils containing lower concentrations of this compost. Chemical analysis of the composts and leachates from the soils showed that the cattle manure compost had higher electrical conductivity (EC) and higher concentrations of nitrogen, especially N–NH4, than the grape marc compost. Water extract of the cattle manure compost showed high nematicidal activity to the nematode juveniles and less activity toward the eggs in vitro. Water extract of the grape marc compost showed weaker nematicidal activity to the juveniles and eggs. Washing composted soils with excess water before nematode inoculation and tomato planting led to better plant growth, but the nematode-suppressive effect was decreased. These results suggest that high nitrogen concentrations, especially N–NH4, and high EC values contribute to the nematode suppressiveness of the composts.


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