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Host resistance and tolerance to migratory plant-parasitic nematodes

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image of Nematology
For more content, see Nematologica.

Plant-parasitic nematodes are divided according to their feeding strategy into three major groups: sedentary endoparasites, migratory endoparasites and ectoparasites. Compared to what is known about sedentary endoparasitic nematode species, resistant and tolerant relationships between the nematodes from the latter two groups and their hosts are much less documented. However, methods for screening and evaluation of the resistance and tolerance of plants to migratory plant-parasitic nematodes have been well developed and sources of resistance and tolerance to these nematodes have been found. Advances have been made in breeding resistance to migratory plant-parasitic nematodes in rice, alfalfa, banana, pine trees, grape, woody fruits and other crops. Although accessions immune to stem, leaf and bud nematodes are found quite frequently, host resistance to migratory root-parasitic nematodes has been detected less frequently and generally only partly reduces nematode multiplication. Host tolerance to migratory nematodes is important even for resistant varieties and therefore is gaining attention. An insufficient degree of resistance and tolerance, their variability with the environment, and their linkage to undesired agricultural or horticultural characters are commonly observed. Polygenic bases for plant resistance and tolerance to migratory nematodes have been demonstrated by genetic and biochemical observations and make breeding even more complicated than that for resistance to sedentary plant-parasitic nematodes. These factors, with the presence of different nematode species in the field and community and population differences in pathogenicity, hinder the availability of host resistance and tolerance and offer a big challenge.


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