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The density of Pratylenchus penetrans in soil is known to be a major determinant in the severity of damage to Japanese radish, but soil chemical and microbial properties may also affect the severity. This study investigated the relationships between damage and the density of P. penetrans, soil chemical properties, such as pH (H2O), EC, available phosphate, NO3–N, NH4–N, total carbon and nitrogen, and microbial properties, such as microbial biomass and fungal and bacterial community structures, in 48 different plots in a field for 2 years. The density of P. penetrans estimated with real-time PCR was most significantly correlated with the damage to radish in both 2010 and 2011. The damage to radish caused by P. penetrans and the nematode density were negatively correlated with total carbon in soil in both years, suggesting that soil management leading to increased soil C could decrease the density of P. penetrans and hence the damage. Multiple regression models including the density of P. penetrans and the soil properties suggested that damage to radish was predictable with a higher probability for some of the soil chemical properties, such as total C and N, and the density of P. penetrans. The community structures of soil fungi and Pseudomonas spp. on the radish surface were different depending on the levels of damage to radish and the densities of P. penetrans. The results suggested that the damage to radish and the density of P. penetrans might be affected by the soil microbial community structure.
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