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Benzyl isothiocyanate affects development, hatching and reproduction of the soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines

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Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), prepared in 1% methanol and applied at micro-molar doses, decreased Heterodera glycines infective second-stage juvenile (J2) movement, hatching and reproduction on soybean, Glycine max. Direct exposure of J2 to 30 μM BITC caused an immediate decrease (17%) in J2 movement relative to 1% methanol controls, and within 3 h exposure eliminated >99% of movement. Continuous exposure of H. glycines eggs to 30 μM or 60 μM BITC significantly decreased percentage hatch of J2 measured at 7 days (30 μM, 15.8 ± 2.4%; 60 μM, 7.9 ± 2.2%) relative to controls (44.9 ± 4.1%). Control percentage hatch increased between days 7 and 14 (87.5 ± 2.3%), whereas there was no significant increase in hatch after Day 7 in either treatment group. The effect of BITC on hatch was rapid and persistent. Following 4 h exposure of eggs to either 30 μM or 60 μM BITC and transfer to water, percentage hatch at Day 14 was 51.3 ± 6.3% and 15.6 ± 1.4%, respectively. Each value was significantly less than the control percentage hatch (96.5 ± 0.2%). The same treatment method also resulted in decreased reproduction. The mean number of cysts per plant harvested 5 weeks after inoculation with control eggs (173.0 ± 12.1) was significantly greater than the numbers from plants inoculated with either 30 μM (78.9 ± 8.2) or 60 μM (38.3 ± 4.5) BITC treated eggs. Reduction of hatch and reproduction were strongly correlated, with r2>0.60 for both 30 μM or 60 μM BITC treatments. The effects of BITC were primarily on the early embryo. The percent of all embryos in the multicellular stage at Day 14 in control eggs was 4.9 ± 0.7%, but increased to 35.1 ± 4.3% (30 μM) and 56.3 ± 4.5% (60 μM) in BITC treated eggs. BITC has multiple effects on H. glycines, affecting both infective juvenile movement and embryonic development, and decreasing reproduction.

Affiliations: 1: 1Agricultural College of Guangxi University, Nanning, P.R. China; 2: 2USDA-ARS Nematology Laboratory, Beltsville, MD, USA; 3: 3School of Mathematics, Computer and Natural Sciences, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA

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2014-01-01
2017-11-21

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