Cookies Policy

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

E-typing for nematodes: an assessment of type specimen use by nematode taxonomists with a summary of types deposited in the Smithsonian Nematode Collection

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

Access this article

+ Tax (if applicable)
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

image of Nematology
For more content, see Nematologica.

We assessed 301 taxonomic papers published in nine journals between 1999-2011 to determine the use of type specimens and to evaluate the habitat focus and the number of new species described per year. A total of ca 100 new nematode species were described every year, primarily from terrestrial habitats. Two-thirds were terrestrial, 16% were aquatic and the remaining 9% were animal-parasitic nematodes. Only 2.5% of the taxonomic literature reported a comparative study of type material for making a decision on the identity of the target taxon. The overwhelming majority (i.e., 97.5%) relied only on literature comparisons. Our closer scrutiny of the 61 papers revealed a number of shared problems: a third stated that inadequacy of original descriptions, or unavailability/inaccessibility of type specimens had hindered them from unequivocally determining the identity of their species. Fourteen percent reported a discrepancy between the text descriptions and the illustrations, and a tenth revealed the absence of designated types for taxa relevant to their work. A similar number indicated deterioration of types to be a reason for either making wrong conclusions in previous descriptions, or for rendering their descriptions incomplete. We argue for E-typing of nematodes as a solution to enhance the future accessibility of type specimens. We stress the need for a concerted effort between museum curators, nematological journals and nematological societies to address the problem and thereby to forge a brighter future for the science.

Affiliations: 1: 1Department of Natural Science, Elizabeth City State University, Elizabeth City, NC 27909, USA; 2: 2Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA


Full text loading...


Data & Media loading...

1. Abebe E. , Grizzle R.E. , Hope D. , Thomas W.K. ( 2004). "Nematode diversity in the Gulf of Maine, USA, and a Web-accessible relational database". Journal of Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom Vol 84, 1159- 1167.
2. Abebe E. , Baldwin J.G. , Adams B. , Hope D. , Gardner S. , Huettel R. , Mullin P. , Powers T. , Sharma J. , Ye W. , et al ( 2006). "A position paper on the electronic publication of nematode taxonomic manuscripts". Journal of Nematology Vol 38, 305- 311.
3. Abebe E. , Sharma J. , Mundo-Ocampo M. , Platt T.R. ( 2012). " Testudinema gilchristi, n. gen., n. sp. (Nematoda: Monhysteridae), from the perianal folds of stinkpot turtles, Sternotherus odoratus(Testudines), USA". Nematology Vol 14, 709- 721.
4. Bandoni S.M. , Duszynski D.W. ( 1988). "A plea for improved presentation of type material for coccidian". Journal of Parasitology Vol 74, 519- 523.
5. Bert W. , Okada H. , Tavernier I. , Borgonie G. , Houthoofd W. ( 2010). "Morphological, morphometric and molecular characterisation of Filenchus fungicolusn. sp., a fungiphagous nematode from Japan in a polyphyletic genus (Nematoda: Tylenchina)". Nematology Vol 12, 235- 246.
6. De Ley P. , Bert W. ( 2002). "Video capture and editing as a tool for the storage, distribution and illustration of morphological characters of nematodes". Journal of Nematology Vol 34, 296- 302.
7. Ebach M.C. , Valdecasas A.G. , Wheeler Q.D. ( 2011). "Impediments to taxonomy and users of taxonomy: accessibility and impact evaluation". Cladistics Vol 27, 550- 557.
8. Handoo Z.A. , Golden A.M. , Ellington D.M.S. ( 1998). "Type specimens on deposit in the United States Department of Agriculture Nematode Collection, Beltsville, Maryland". Journal of Nematology Vol 30, 108- 158.
9. Hauser C.L. , Scoble M.J. ( 2005). "Introduction". In: Häuser C.L. , Steiner A. , Holstein J. , Scoble M. (Eds). Digital imaging of biological type specimens. A manual of best practice. Results from a study of the European Network for Biodiversity Information, Stuttgart, Germany, pp.  4- 14.
10. Hooge M. , Wallberg A. , Todt C. , Maloy A. , Jondelius U. , Tyler S. ( 2007). "A revision of the systematics of panther worms ( Hofsteniaspp., Acoela), with notes on color variation and genetic variation within the genus". Hydrobiologia Vol 92, 439- 454.
11. International Code of Zoological Nomenclature( 1999). International code of zoological nomenclature adopted by the International Union of Biological Resources, 4th edition. London, UK, International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature.
12. Itaki T. , Khim B.-K. ( 2007). "Radiolarians from the British North-Polar Expedition (1875-1876): re-examination of the H.B. Brady (1878) collection". Journal of Natural History Vol 41, 2537- 2542.
13. Izawa K. ( 1995). "Resurrection of parasitic copepod genus AchtheinusWilson, 1908 (Siphonostomatoida, Pandaridae), with redescription of A. oblongusWilson, 1908, A. dentatusWilson, 1911, and A. pinguisWilson, 1912 based on museum collections". Crustaceana Vol 3, 971- 995.
14. Jiménez M. , Paretas-Martínez J. , Pujade-Vilalr J. ( 2008). "Revision of XyalophoraKieffer and description of Xyalophoroidesgen. n. (Hymenoptera: Figitidae: Figitinae)". European Journal of Entomology Vol 105, 751- 769.
15. Khuroo A.A. , Dar G.H. , Khan Z.S. , Malik A.H. ( 2007). "Exploring an inherent interface between taxonomy and biodiversity: current problems and future challenges". Journal for Nature Conservation Vol 15, 256- 261.
16. King I.W. , Mundo-Ocampo M. , De Ley P. ( 2010). " Xyala finneyaesp. n. (Nematoda: Xyalidae), from the intertidal region of the eastern Gulf of California, Mexico". Nematology Vol 12, 673- 680.
17. Knapp S. ( 2008). "Taxonomy as a team sport". In: Wheeler Q.D. (Ed.). The new taxonomy. Boca Raton, FL, USA, CRC Press, pp.  33- 53.
18. Luc M. , Doucet M.E. , Fortuner R. , Castillo P. , Decraemer W. , Lax P. ( 2010). "Usefulness of morphological data for the study of nematode biodiversity". Nematology Vol 12, 495- 504.
19. Martin-Vega D. , Baz A. , Michelsen V. ( 2010). "Back from the dead: Thyreophora cynophila(Panzer, 1798) (Diptera: Piophilidae) ‘globally extinct’ fugitive in Spain". Systematic Entomology Vol 35, 607- 613.
20. McNeely J.A. ( 2002). "The role of taxonomy in conserving biodiversity". Journal of Nature Conservation Vol 10, 145- 153.
21. Mundo-Ocampo M. , Baldwin J.G. ( 2010). "Type specimens deposited at the University of California Riverside Nematode Collection". Nematology Vol 12, 25- 48.
22. Munera G.E. , Bert W. , Decraemer W. ( 2009). "Morphological and molecular characterisation of Pratylenchus araucensisn. sp. (Pratylenchidae), a root-lesion nematode associated with Musaplants in Colombia". Nematology Vol 11, 799- 813.
23. Padia J.M. , Miralles A. , De la Riva I. , Vences M. ( 2010). "The integrative future of taxonomy". Frontiers in Zoology Vol 7, 16.
24. Rastegar-Pouyani N. ( 2000). "Taxonomic status of Trapelus ruderatus(Olivier) and T. persicus(Blanford), and validity of T. lessonae(De Filippi)". Amphibia-Reptilia Vol 21, 91- 102.
25. Scoble M.J. ( 2008). "Networks and their role in e-taxonomy". In: Wheeler Q.D. (Ed.). The new taxonomy. Boca Raton, FL, USA, CRC Press, pp.  19- 31.
26. Speers L. ( 2005). "E-Types – a new resource for taxonomic research". In: Häuser C.L. , Steiner A. , Holstein J. , Scoble M. (Eds). Digital imaging of biological type specimens. A manual of best practice. Results from a study of the European Network for Biodiversity Information, Stuttgart, Germany, pp.  19- 24.
27. Steel H. , Moens T. , Scholaert A. , Boshoff M. , Houthoofd W. , Bert W. ( 2011). " Mononchoides composticolan. sp. (Nematoda: Diplogastridae) associated with composting processes: morphological, molecular and autecological characterization". Nematology Vol 3, 347- 363.
28. Stuart B.L. , Fritz U. ( 2008). "Historical DNA from museum type specimens clarifies diversity of Asian leaf turtles ( Cyclemys)". Biological Journal of the Linnean Society Vol 94, 131- 141.
29. Suarez A.V. , Tsutsui N.D. ( 2004). "The value of museum collections for research and society". BioScience Vol 54, 66- 74.[0066:TVOMCF]2.0.CO;2
30. Townson H. , Harbach R.E. , Callan T.A. ( 1999). "DNA identification of museum specimens of the Anopheles gambiaecomplex: an evaluation of PCR as a tool for resolving the formal taxonomy of sibling species complexes". Systematic Entomology Vol 24, 95- 100.
31. Wägele H. , Klussmann-Kolb A. , Kuhlmann M. , Haszprunar G. , Lindberg D. , Koch A. , Wägele J.W. ( 2011). "The taxonomist – an endangered race. A practical proposal for its survival". Frontiers in Zoology Vol 8, 25.
32. Wheeler Q.D. ( 2008). "Introductory: towards the new taxonomy". In: Wheeler Q.D. (Ed.). The new taxonomy. Boca Raton, FL, USA, CRC Press, pp.  1- 18.
33. Wheeler Q.D. , Valdecasas A.G. ( 2005). "Ten challenges to transform taxonomy". Graellsia Vol 61, 151- 160.
34. Wouts W.M. ( 1996). "The national nematode collection of New Zealand". New Zealand Journal of Zoology Vol 23, 183- 189.

Article metrics loading...



Can't access your account?
  • Tools

  • Add to Favorites
  • Printable version
  • Email this page
  • Subscribe to ToC alert
  • Get permissions
  • Recommend to your library

    You must fill out fields marked with: *

    Librarian details
    Your details
    Why are you recommending this title?
    Select reason:
    Nematology — Recommend this title to your library
  • Export citations
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation