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Seasonal and temperature effects on hatching of Heterodera avenae (Shandong population, China)

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The cereal cyst nematode (CCN; Heterodera avenae) is a serious nematode pest, causing yield losses in cereals. This research aimed to investigate the effect of season on the aging of cysts and hatching of H. avenae in laboratory and field experiments. In the laboratory experiment, no second-stage juveniles (J2) emerged from white cysts that were incubated at different temperatures. However, the aging of cysts was related to temperature, since the browning of white cysts accelerated at higher temperatures. In the field experiment, hatching peaked from November to March with hatching from 84.5% of cysts sampled during this period. The population of J2 in soil samples peaked during March. Although the hatching pattern from encysted eggs was similar to that recorded from free eggs (eggs released from cysts), their hatching rate was higher than that of free eggs. In a field that was naturally infested with CCN, the number of eggs that were present in cysts was significantly greater from soil samples obtained from May to November than in cysts from samples obtained during other periods of the year. Although cysts were extracted from soil samples from the nematode-infested soil all year round, no eggs or J2 were present in cysts that were obtained during April. The number of cysts recorded from soil samples substantially increased during May. The information available as a result of this study will be useful for the application of control methodologies to decrease field populations of H. avenae below the economic damage threshold.

Affiliations: 1: 1Agricultural College of Guangxi University, Nanning 530004, P.R. China; 2: 3State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 100193 Beijing, P.R. China


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