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In vitroassessment of the effects of Brassica junceaand Raphanus sativusleaf and root extracts on the viability of Globodera pallidaencysted eggs

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The biofumigation potential of leaf and root extracts of Brassica junceaand Raphanus sativuson Globodera pallidawere assessed in vitro. In an efficacy study, G. pallidaencysted eggs were exposed to six different concentrations of freeze-dried leaf or root extracts for 96 h and assessed for viability using hatching assays in 6-week-old potato root leachates (PRL). For B. junceaextracts an LC 50value of 0.027 mg ml −1w/v was determined. The LC 50of Raphanus sativusroot extracts was 0.032 mg ml −1, whereas leaf extracts were effective only at higher concentrations (⩾0.50 mg ml −1; w/v) and to a lesser extent. Hatching of G. pallidawas enhanced in PRL following exposure to lower concentrations (0.063 mg ml −1) of R. sativusleaf extract. An analysis of the types and concentrations of glucosinolate (GSL) present in the freeze-dried tissues revealed that B. juncealeaf tissue was rich in 2-propenyl GSL (≈98%). Root tissue also had a high concentration of 2-propenyl GSL, but the leaf extracts were found to have a higher concentration (⩾90 μmol (g dry weight) −1) when compared with the root extract (⩾10 μmol (g dry weight) −1). Raphanus sativushad two-fold more root GSL, predominantly 2-phenylethyl GSL (⩾50 μmol (g dry weight) −1), when compared with the leaf tissue which was dominated by 4-methylsulfinylbutyl GSL (⩾20 μmol (g dry weight) −1). In summary, the strong suppression of G. pallidaencysted eggs exhibited by lower concentrations of B. junceaextracts shows the potential of this species in G. pallidamanagement if effectively incorporated into an integrated potato cyst nematode management scheme. In comparison with B. juncea, the biofumigation potential of R. sativuscan be improved by maximising its root biomass production.

Affiliations: 1: Crop and Environment Sciences Department, Harper Adams University, Newport, Shropshire TF10 8NB, UK


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