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On the presence or absence of phasmids in males of Heteroderidae (Tylenchida)

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Published data on the presence or absence of phasmids in males of Heteroderidae species are compiled and critically reviewed. Based mainly on results of previous SEM studies and complemented by light microscopy using DIC optics, the conclusion is drawn that male phasmids appear to be absent in all species of the genera assigned to the subfamilies Heteroderinae and Ataloderinae, but present and often distinct in the Meloidoderinae genera Cryphodera and Meloidodera. The presence of male phasmids is considered as ancestral, and loss of phasmids as a derived character.

Affiliations: 1: Arnethstr. 13D, 48159 Münster, Germany

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/content/journals/10.1163/15685411-00002939
2016-01-01
2017-11-21

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