Cookies Policy
X

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

Description of Globodera agulhasensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Heteroderidae) from South Africa

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

Access this article

+ Tax (if applicable)
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

image of Nematology
For more content, see Nematologica.

A new cyst nematode, herein described as Globodera agulhasensis n. sp., was found parasitising Senecio burchelli in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. Second-stage juveniles are characterised by a well developed stylet of 23.5 (22.5-24.8) μm with rounded to anteriorly flattened knobs. The dorsal pharyngeal gland outlet is 4.4 (3.5-6.5) μm posterior to the stylet knobs. The tail is 56 (49-64) μm long and the length of the hyaline region is 25 (19-29) μm. The cysts are characterised by their ovate to spherical shape, short neck, the presence of subcuticular punctations over the entire body and the absence of bullae or vulval bodies. Six to 12 cuticular ridges/lines are present on the outer surface of the cyst between the anus and vulval basin. Granek’s ratio is 1.7 (1.0-3.0), the vulval basin diam. 17.6 (11.7-26.1) μm and the distance between vulval basin and anus is 28.6 (19.1-47.0) μm. Males have a stylet length of 26.1 (24.4-27.7) μm and spicule length of 30.3 (27.2-33.8) μm with a rounded tip. Females have a stylet length of 22.1 (19.0-24.4) μm, a large median bulb almost filling the body diam., and a short vulval slit 4.2 (3.2-6.6) μm long. Phylogenetic relationships of G. agulhasensis n. sp. with other species of the genus, inferred from ITS-rRNA sequences by using the neighbour-joining (NJ), maximum likelihood (ML) and maximum parsimony method (MP), indicate that G. agulhasensis n. sp. is included in the clade of Globodera sp. that parasitise non-solanaceous plants, forming a monophyletic group with unidentified Globodera spp. from Portugal, G. millefolii and G. artemisiae. For diagnostic purposes, three restriction enzymes, Hpy8I, RsaI and XceI were selected as being able to discriminate between G. agulhasensis n. sp. and other Globodera spp. present in South Africa.

Affiliations: 1: 1Directorate Inspection Services, Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Private Bag X5015, Stellenbosch 7599, South Africa ; 2: 2Department of Conservation Ecology and Entomology, Department of AgriSciences, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, South Africa ; 3: 3Nematology Unit, Biosystematics Division, ARC-Plant Protection Research Institute, Private Bag X134, Queenswood 0121, South Africa ; 4: 4Laboratory for Electron Microscopy, North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, Potchefstroom 2520, South Africa

*Corresponding author, e-mail: rinusk@daff.gov.za
Loading

Full text loading...

/content/journals/10.1163/15685411-00003050
Loading

Data & Media loading...

1. Behrens E. (1975). Globodera Skarbilovic, 1959, eine selbstandige Gattung in der Unterfamilie Heteroderinae Skarbilovic, 1947 (Nematoda: Heteroderidae). In: Vortagstagung zu Aktuellen Problemen der Phytonematologie am 29.5.1975 in Rostock. Manuskriptdruck der Vorträge. Biologische Gesellschaft der DDR, Sektion Phytopathologie und Universitat, Rostock, pp. 12-26.
2. Cobb G.S., Taylor A.L. (1953). "Heterodera leptonepia n. sp., a cyst-forming nematode found in soil with stored potatoes". Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington Vol 20, 13-15.
3. Cowling R.M., Richardson D.M., Mustart P.J. (2004). "Fynbos". In: Cowling R.M., Richardson D.M., Pierce S.M. (Eds). Vegetation of southern Africa. Cambridge, UK, Cambridge University Press, pp.  99-130.
4. Eroshenko A.S., Kazachenko I.P. (1972). ["Heterodera artemisiae sp. (Nematoda: Heteroderidae) – a new species of cyst-forming nematode from the Primorsk Territory".] Parazitologija Vol 6, 166-170.
5. Evans K., Rowe J.A. (1998). "Distribution and economic importance". In: Sharma S.B. (Ed.). The cyst nematodes. Dordrecht, The Netherlands, Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp.  1-30. [Crossref]
6. Felsenstein J. (1985). "Confidence limits on phylogenies: an approach using the bootstrap". Evolution Vol 39, 783-791. [Crossref]
7. Ferris V.R., Krall E., Faghihi J., Ferris J.M. (1999). "Phylogenetic relationships of Globodera millefolii, G. artemisiae, and Cactodera salina based on ITS region of ribosomal DNA". Journal of Nematology Vol 31, 498-507.
8. Franco N.F., Cid del Prado Vera I., Lamothe-Argumedo R. (2000). "Globodera bravoae sp. n. (Tylenchida: Heteroderidae) from Mexico". International Journal of Nematology Vol 10, 169-176.
9. Golden A.M., Klindić O. (1973). "Heterodera achilleae n. sp. (Nematoda, Heteroderidae) from yarrow in Yugoslavia". Journal of Nematology Vol 5, 196-201.
10. Grenier E., Fournet S., Petit E., Anthoine G. (2010). "A cyst nematode ‘species factory’ called the Andes". Nematology Vol 12, 163-169. [Crossref]
11. Handoo Z.A., Carta L.K., Skantar A.M., Chitwood D.J. (2012). "Description of Globodera ellingtonae n. sp. (Nematoda: Heteroderidae) from Oregon". Journal of Nematology Vol 44, 40-57.
12. Hirschmann H., Riggs R.D. (1969). "Heterodera betulae n. sp. (Heteroderidae), a cyst-forming nematode from river birch". Journal of Nematology Vol 1, 169-179.
13. Katoh K., Kuma K., Toh H., Miyata T. (2005). "MAFFT version 5: improvement in accuracy of multiple sequence alignment". Nucleic Acids Research Vol 33, 511-518. [Crossref]
14. Kimura M. (1980). "A simple method for estimating evolutionary rate of base substitutions through comparative studies of nucleotide sequences". Journal of Molecular Evolution Vol 16, 111-120. [Crossref]
15. Kirjanova E.S., Borisenko A.V. (1975). ["A cyst forming nematode – Heterodera mali sp. n. – a new species of parasite of apple trees in the Kazakhstan".] Parasitologiya Vol 9, 335-338.
16. Kirjanova E.S., Krall E.L. (1965). ["The milfoil cyst nematode Heterodera millefolii n. sp. (Nematoda: Heteroderidae)".] Eesti NSV Teaduste Akadeemia Toimetised Bioloogiline Seeria Vol 14(3), 325-328.
17. Knoetze R., Swart A. (2014). "A survey of the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa for the presence of cyst nematodes (Nematoda: Heteroderidae)". Zootaxa Vol 3893, 429-437. [Crossref]
18. Knoetze R., Swart A., Tiedt L.R. (2013). "Description of Globodera capensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Heteroderidae) from South Africa". Nematology Vol 15, 233-250. [Crossref]
19. Lax P., Doucet M.E. (2002). "New process for preparing heteroderid cysts for scanning electron microscopy". Nematology Vol 4, 445-447. [Crossref]
20. Lownsbery B.F., Lownsbery J.W. (1954). "Heterodera tabacum, a parasite of solanaceous plants in Connecticut". Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington Vol 21, 43-46.
21. Madani M., Subbotin S.A., Ward L.J., Li X., De Boer S.H. (2010). "Molecular characterization of Canadian populations of potato cyst nematodes, Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida using ribosomal nuclear RNA and cytochrome b genes". Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology Vol 32, 252-263. [Crossref]
22. Manduric S., Andersson S. (2004). "The identity of a Swedish Globodera (Nematoda: Heteroderidae) population, following comparisons with known populations of G. artemisiae (Eroshenko & Kazachenko, 1972) Behrens, 1975". Russian Journal of Nematology Vol 12, 39-44.
23. Mulvey R.H., Stone A.R. (1976). "Description of Punctodera matadorensis n. gen., n. sp. (Nematoda: Heteroderidae) from Saskatchewan, with lists of species and generic diagnosis of Globodera (n. rank), Heterodera and Sarisodera". Canadian Journal of Zoology Vol 54, 772-785. [Crossref]
24. Nei M., Kumar S. (2000). Molecular evolution and phylogenetics. Oxford, UK, Oxford University Press.
25. Netscher C., Seinhorst J.W. (1969). "Propionic acid better than acetic acid for killing nematodes". Nematologica Vol 15, 286.
26. Picard D., Sempere T., Plantard O. (2008). "Direction and timing of uplift propagation in the Peruvian Andes deduced from molecular phylogenetics of highland biotaxa". Earth and Planetary Science Letters Vol 271, 326-336. [Crossref]
27. Sabo A., Reis L.G.L., Krall E., Mundo-Ocampo M., Ferris V.R. (2002). "Phylogenetic relationships of a distinct species of Globodera from Portugal and two Punctodera species". Journal of Nematology Vol 34, 263-266.
28. Saitou N., Nei M. (1987). "The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees". Molecular Biology and Evolution Vol 4, 406-425.
29. Seinhorst J.W. (1959). "A rapid method for the transfer of nematodes from fixative to anhydrous glycerin". Nematologica Vol 4, 67-69. [Crossref]
30. Sirca S., Urek G. (2004). "Morphometrical and ribosomal DNA sequence analysis of Globodera rostochiensis and Globodera achilleae from Slovenia". Russian Journal of Nematology Vol 12, 161-168.
31. Skantar A.M., Handoo Z.A., Carta L.K., Chitwood D.J. (2007). "Morphological and molecular identification of Globodera pallida associated with potato in Idaho". Journal of Nematology Vol 39, 133-144.
32. Skarbilovich T.S. (1959). "On the structure of the systematics of nematodes of the order Tylenchida Thorne, 1949". Acta Parasitologica Polonica Vol 7, 117-132.
33. Stone A.R. (1973). "Heterodera pallida n. sp. (Nematoda: Heteroderidae), a second species of potato cyst nematode". Nematologica Vol 18, 591-606. [Crossref]
34. Stone A.R. (1979). "Co-evolution of nematodes and plants". Symbolae Botanicae Uppsala Vol 22, 46-61.
35. Stone A.R. (1983). "Three approaches to the status of a species complex with a revision of some Globodera (Nematoda: Heteroderidae)". In: Stone A.R., Platt H.M., Khalil L.F. (Eds). Concepts in nematode systematics. Systematics Association Special Volume Series, Vol Vol. 22. London, UK, Academic Press, pp.  221-233.
36. Sturhan D. (2002). "Notes on the genus Cactodera Krall & Krall, 1978 and proposal of Betulodera betulae gen. nov., comb. nov. (Nematoda: Heteroderidae)". Nematology Vol 4, 875-882. [Crossref]
37. Sturhan D., Wouts W.M., Subbotin S.A. (2007). "An unusual cyst nematode from New Zealand, Paradolichodera tenuissima gen. n., sp. n. (Tylenchida: Heteroderidae)". Nematology Vol 9, 561-571. [Crossref]
38. Subbotin S.A., Vierstraete A., De Ley P., Rowe J., Waeyenberge L., Moens M., Vanfleteren J.R. (2001). "Phylogenetic relationships within the cyst-forming nematodes (Nematoda, Heteroderidae) based on analysis of sequences from the ITS regions of ribosomal DNA". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution Vol 21, 1-16. [Crossref]
39. Subbotin S.A., Mundo-Ocampo M., Baldwin J.G. (2010). Systematics of cyst nematodes (Nematoda: Heteroderidae). Nematology Monographs and Perspectives, Vol Vol. 8A (Series editors: Hunt D.J., Perry R.N.). Leiden, The Netherlands, Brill.
40. Subbotin S.A., Cid Del Prado Vera I., Mundo-Ocampo M., Baldwin J.G. (2011). "Identification, phylogeny and phylogeography of circumfenestrate cyst nematodes (Nematoda: Heteroderidae) as inferred from analysis of ITS-rDNA". Nematology Vol 13, 805-824. [Crossref]
41. Szalanski A.L., Sui D.D., Harris T.S., Powers T.O. (1997). "Identification of cyst nematodes of agronomic and regulatory concern with PCR-RFLP of ITS1". Journal of Nematology Vol 29, 255-267.
42. Tamura K., Stecher G., Peterson D., Filipski A., Kumar S. (2013). "MEGA6: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis version 6.0". Molecular Biology and Evolution Vol 30, 2725-2729. [Crossref]
43. Tanha Maafi Z., Subbotin S.A., Moens M. (2003). "Molecular identification of cyst-forming nematodes (Heteroderidae) from Iran and a phylogeny based on ITS-rDNA sequences". Nematology Vol 5, 99-111. [Crossref]
44. Thorne G. (1928). "Heterodera punctata n. sp., a nematode parasite on wheat roots from Saskatchewan". Scientific Agriculture Vol 8, 707-710.
45. Uehara T., Kushida A., Itou K., Narabu T., Momota Y. (2005). "Discrimination of three cyst-forming nematodes of the genus Globodera (Nematode: Heteroderidae) from Japan based on PCR-RFLP of ribosomal DNA". Applied Entomology and Zoology (Japan) Vol 40, 537-543. [Crossref]
46. Vrain T.C., Wakarchuck D.A., Lèvesque A.C., Hamilton R.I. (1992). "Intraspecific rDNA restriction fragment length polymorphism in the Xiphinema americanum group". Fundamental and Applied Nematology Vol 15, 563-573.
47. Wollenweber H.W. (1923). Krankheiten und Beschädigungen der Kartoffel. Arbeiten des Forschungsinstitutes für Kartoffelbau, Vol Heft 7. Berlin, Germany, Paul Parey.
48. Wouts W.M. (1984). "Globodera zelandica n. sp. (Nematoda: Heteroderidae) from New Zealand, with a key to the species of the genus Globodera". New Zealand Journal of Zoology Vol 11, 129-135. [Crossref]
http://brill.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1163/15685411-00003050
Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1163/15685411-00003050
2017-03-15
2018-10-18

Sign-in

Can't access your account?
  • Tools

  • Add to Favorites
  • Printable version
  • Email this page
  • Subscribe to ToC alert
  • Get permissions
  • Recommend to your library

    You must fill out fields marked with: *

    Librarian details
    Your details
    Why are you recommending this title?
    Select reason:
     
    Nematology — Recommend this title to your library
  • Export citations
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation