Cookies Policy

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for detection of the red ring nematode, Bursaphelenchus cocophilus

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

Access this article

+ Tax (if applicable)
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

image of Nematology
For more content, see Nematologica.

As a first step in developing a quick, accurate and simple method for the diagnosis of red ring disease, the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP)-based identification procedure was applied to the causative agent, Bursaphelenchus cocophilus. Two LAMP primer sets were designed using two loci of ribosomal RNA genes, i.e., D2-D3 expansion segments of the large subunit (D2-D3 LSU), and internal transcribed spacers (ITS). Within those two sets of primers, the D2-D3 LSU primer set successfully yielded amplicons from B. cocophilus nematode lysate prepared from 3-year-old DESS-fixed specimens. The specificity of the primers was examined using 18 species of confamilial Aphelenchoididae nematodes and primer sensitivity was tested using a diluted series of B. cocophilus lysate. The primer set did not amplify the DNA from other aphelenchoidids, and sensitivity was achieved by ‘1:100 diluted’ B. cocophilus DNA (roughly 1/1500 of total DNA from a single third-stage juvenile).

Affiliations: 1: 1Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute (FFPRI), 1 Matsunosato, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8687, Japan ; 2: 2Tropical Fruits Program, International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), Km 17, Recta Cali-Palmira Apartado Aéreo 6713, Cali, Colombia ; 3: 3Fort Lauderdale Research and Education Center, University of Florida/IFAS, 3205 College Avenue, Davie, FL 33314-7799, USA

*Present address: National Museum of Nature and Science, 4-1-1, Amakubo, Tsukoba, Ibaraki 305-0005, Japan
**Corresponding author, e-mail:
∗∗∗Present address: Kansai Research Center, FFPRI, 68 Nagaikyutaroh, Momoyama, Fushimi, Kyoto, 612-0855, Japan
∗∗∗∗Present address: Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA

Full text loading...


Data & Media loading...

1. Baujard P. (1989). "Remarques sur les genres des sous-familles Bursaphelenchina Paramonov, 1964 et Rhadinaphelenchinae Paramonov, 1964 (Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae)". Revue de Nématologie Vol 12, 323-324. Available online at
2. Cobb N.A. (1919). "A newly discovered nematode (Aphelenchus cocophilus sp. n.) connected with a serious disease of the coconut palm". West Indian Bulletin Vol 17, 203-210.
3. de Oliveira G.M.G., Eulálio J., Bessi R., Harakawa R. (2011). "Morphological and molecular characterization of Bursaphelenchus fungivorus (Nematoda: Aphelenchida) detected for the first time in Brazil". Nematologia Brasileira Vol 35, 63-70.
4. EPPO (2005). "Rhynchophorus palmarum". EPPO Bulletin Vol 35, 468-471. DOI: [Crossref]
5. EPPO (2008). "Rhynchophorus ferrugineus". EPPO Bulletin Vol 38, 55-59. DOI: [Crossref]
6. Fischbach J., Xander N.C., Frohma M., Glökler J.F. (2015). "Shining a light on LAMP assays – a comparison of LAMP visualization methods including the novel use of berberine". BioTechniques Vol 58, 189-194. DOI: [Crossref]
7. Fukuta S., Kato S., Yoshida K., Mizukami Y., Ishida A., Ueda J., Kanbe M., Ishimoto Y. (2003). "Detection of tomato yellow leaf curl virus by loop-mediated isothermal amplification reaction". Journal of Virological Methods Vol 112, 35-40. DOI: [Crossref]
8. Futai K. (2013). "Pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus". Annual Review of Phytopathology Vol 51, 61-83. DOI: [Crossref]
9. Gerber K., Giblin-Davis R.M. (1990a). "Teratorhabditis palmarum n. sp. (Nemata: Rhabditidae), an associate of Rhynchophorus palmarum and R. cruentatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)". Journal of Nematology Vol 22, 337-347. Available online at
10. Gerber K., Giblin-Davis R.M. (1990b). "Association of the red ring nematode, Rhadinaphelenchus cocophilus, and other nematode species with Rhynchophorus palmarum (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)". Journal of Nematology Vol 22, 143-149. Available online at
11. Giblin-Davis R.M. (1993). "Interactions of nematodes with insects". In: Khan M.W. (Ed.). Nematode interactions. London, UK, Chapman and Hall, pp.  302-344. [Crossref]
12. Giblin-Davis R.M. (2001). "Borers of palms". In: Howard F.W., Moore D., Giblin-Davis R.M., Abad R. (Eds). Insects on palms. Wallingford, UK, CAB International, pp.  267-305. Available online at [Crossref]
13. Giblin-Davis R.M., Kanzaki N., Ye W., Mundo-Ocampo M., Baldwin J.G., Thomas W.K. (2006a). "Morphology and description of Bursaphelenchus platzeri n. sp. (Nematoda: Parasitaphelenchidae), an associate of nitidulid beetles". Journal of Nematology Vol 38, 150-157. Available online at
14. Giblin-Davis R.M., Kanzaki N., Ye W., Center B.J., Thomas W.K. (2006b). "Morphology and systematics of Bursaphelenchus gerberae n. sp. (Nematoda: Parasitaphelenchidae), a rare associate of the palm weevil, Rhynchophorus palmarum in Trinidad". Zootaxa Vol 1189, 39-53. DOI:
15. Goodey J.B. (1960). "Rhadinaphelenchus cocophilus (Cobb, 1919) n. comb., the nematode associated with ‘red-ring’ disease of coconut". Nematologica Vol 5, 98-102. DOI: [Crossref]
16. Griffith R. (1968a). "The relationship between the red ring nematode and the palm weevil". Journal of Agricultural Society of Trinidad and Tobago Vol 68, 342-356.
17. Griffith R. (1968b). "The mechanism of transmission of red ring nematode". Journal of Agricultural Society of Trinidad and Tobago Vol 68, 437-457.
18. Griffith R., Giblin-Davis R.M., Koshy P.K., Sosamma V.K. (2005). "Nematode parasites of coconut and other palms". In: Luc M., Sikora R.A., Bridge J. (Eds). Plant parasitic nematodes in subtropical and tropical agriculture, 2nd edition. Wallingford, UK, CAB International, pp.  493-527. [Crossref]
19. Hart J.H. (1905). "Coconut disease". Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information, Royal Botanic Gardens, Trinidad Vol 6, 241-243.
20. Hoshizaki K., Nakabayashi Y., Mamiya Y., Matsushita M. (2015). "Localized within- and between-tree variation in nematode distribution during latent state of pine wilt disease makes the disease status cryptic". Forest Pathology Vol 46, 200-205. DOI: [Crossref]
21. Ide T., Kanzaki N., Ohmura W., Okabe K. (2016a). "Molecular identification of an invasive wood-boring insect Lyctus brunneus (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae: Lyctinae) using frass by loop-mediated isothermal amplification and nested PCR assays". Journal of Economic Entomology Vol 109, 1410-1414. DOI: [Crossref]
22. Ide T., Kanzaki N., Ohmura W., Okabe K. (2016b). "Molecular identification of the western drywood termite (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae) by loop-mediated isothermal amplification of DNA from fecal pellets". Journal of Economic Entomology Vol 109, 2234-2237. DOI: [Crossref]
23. Ito H., Kanzaki N., Kikuchi T. (2010). ["Diagnosis of the pine wilt disease using the pinewood nematode detection kit with everyday materials".] Forest Pest Vol 59, 55-59.
24. Kanetani S., Kikuchi T., Akiba M., Nakamura K., Ikegame K., Tetsuka K. (2010). "Detection of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus from old discs of dead Pinus armandii var. amamiana trees using a new detection kit". Forest Pathology Vol 41, 387-391. DOI: [Crossref]
25. Kanzaki N., Futai K. (2002). "A PCR primer set for determination of phylogenetic relationships of Bursaphelenchus species within xylophilus group". Nematology Vol 4, 35-41. DOI: [Crossref]
26. Kanzaki N., Giblin-Davis R.M. (2016). "Pine wilt and red ring, lethal plant diseases caused by insect-mediated Bursaphelenchus nematodes". In: Brown J.K. (Ed.). Vector-mediated transmission of plant pathogens. St Paul, MN, USA, APS Press, pp.  87-107. DOI: [Crossref]
27. Kanzaki N., Giblin-Davis R.M., Zeng Y., Ye W., Center B.J. (2008). "Diplogastrellus metamasius n. sp. (Rhabditida: Diplogastridae) isolated from Metamasius hemipterus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) in southern Florida and Costa Rica". Nematology Vol 10, 853-868. DOI: [Crossref]
28. Kanzaki N., Giblin-Davis R.M., Zeng Y., Ye W., Center B.J. (2009). "Acrostichus rhynchophori n. sp. (Rhabditida: Diplogastridae): a phoretic associate of Rhynchophorus cruentatus Fabricius and R. palmarum L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in the Americas". Nematology Vol 11, 669-688. DOI: [Crossref]
29. Kanzaki N., Giblin-Davis R.M., Gonzalez R., Duncan R., Carrillo D. (2015). "Description of Ruehmaphelenchus juliae n. sp. (Tylenchina: Aphelenchoididae) isolated from an ambrosia beetle, Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky), from South Florida". Nematology Vol 17, 639-653. DOI: [Crossref]
30. Kanzaki N., Aikawa T., Maehara N., Thu P.Q. (2016). "Bursaphelenchus kesiyae n. sp. (Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae), isolated from dead wood of Pinus kesiya royle ex Gordon (Pinaceae) from Vietnam with proposal of new subgroups in the B. fungivorus group". Nematology Vol 18, 133-146. DOI: [Crossref]
31. Kikuchi T., Aikawa T., Oeda Y., Karim N., Kanzaki N. (2009). "A rapid and precise diagnostic method for detecting the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus by loop-mediated isothermal amplification". Phytopathology Vol 99, 1365-1369. DOI: [Crossref]
32. Mitarai S., Okumura M., Toyota E., Yoshiyama T., Aono A., Sejimo A., Azuma Y., Sugahara K., Nagasawa T., Nagayama N. , et al (2011). "Evaluation of a simple loop-mediated isothermal amplification test kit for the diagnosis of tuberculosis". International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease Vol 15, 1211-1217. DOI: [Crossref]
33. Notomi T., Mori Y., Tomita N., Kanda H. (2015). "Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP): principle, features, and future prospects". Journal of Microbiology Vol 53, 1-5. DOI: [Crossref]
34. Nowell W. (1919). "Red ring or root disease of coconut palms". West Indian Bulletin Vol 17, 189-192.
35. Okuda M., Matsumoto M., Tanaka Y., Subandiyah S., Iwanami T. (2005). "Characterization of the tufB-secE-nusG-rplKAJL-rpoB gene cluster of the citrus greening organism and detection by loop-mediated isothermal amplification". Plant Disease Vol 89, 705-711. DOI: [Crossref]
36. Powers T.O. (2004). "Nematode molecular diagnostics: from bands to barcodes". Annual Review of Phytopathology Vol 42, 367-383. DOI: [Crossref]
37. Rorer J.B. (1911). Diseases of the coconut palm. Circular 4. Board of Agriculture, Trinidad, pp. 27-33.
38. Silva A.P., Parra P.P., Campos V.P., Costa S.S., Vicente C.S.L., Ferreira L.G., Souza R.M., Mota M. (2016). "Genetic diversity of Bursaphelenchus cocophilus in South America". Nematology Vol 18, 605-614. DOI: [Crossref]
39. Sudhaus W., Kiontke K., Giblin-Davis R.M. (2011). "Description of Caenorhabditis angaria n. sp. (Nematoda: Rhabditidae), an associate of sugarcane and palm weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)". Nematology Vol 13, 61-78. DOI: [Crossref]
40. Tanaka R., Kikuchi T., Aikawa T., Kanzaki N. (2012). "Simple and quick methods for nematode DNA preparation". Applied Entomology and Zoology Vol 47, 291-294. DOI: [Crossref]
41. Ye W., Giblin-Davis R.M., Braasch H., Morris K., Thomas W.K. (2007). "Phylogenetic relationships among Bursaphelenchus species (Nematoda: Parasitaphelenchidae) inferred from nuclear ribosomal and mitochondrial DNA sequence data". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution Vol 43, 1185-1197. DOI: [Crossref]
42. Yoder M., De Ley I.T., King I.W., Mundo-Ocampo M., Mann J., Blaxter M., Poiras L., De Ley P. (2006). "DESS: a versatile solution for preserving morphology and extractable DNA of nematodes". Nematology Vol 8, 367-376. DOI: [Crossref]

Article metrics loading...



Can't access your account?
  • Tools

  • Add to Favorites
  • Printable version
  • Email this page
  • Subscribe to ToC alert
  • Get permissions
  • Recommend to your library

    You must fill out fields marked with: *

    Librarian details
    Your details
    Why are you recommending this title?
    Select reason:
    Nematology — Recommend this title to your library
  • Export citations
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation