Cookies Policy

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here

Meloidoderita whittoni (Sledge & Christie, 1962) comb. n. (Tylenchida: Sphaeronematidae) and its parasitic habits on sweet gum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.)

No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.

Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

Access this article

+ Tax (if applicable)
Add to Favorites
You must be logged in to use this functionality

For more content, see Nematologica.

Morphological and molecular analyses of three populations of Meloidoderita whittoni (Sledge & Christie, 1962) comb. n. (syn. Sphaeronema whittoni; Tumiota whittoni) collected in Florida from sweet gum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) indicated that this species is a representative of Meloidoderita rather than Sphaeronema, where it was included in the original description, or Tumiota, to where it was subsequently transferred. However, this species can be considered an atypical representative of the genus, because it differs from the other species of this genus in having females retaining the eggs inside a thin-walled uterus, which remains encased inside their body. After egg deposition inside the uterus, the female dies and its body is transformed into a persistent tanned sac with a thick cuticle, devoid of ornamentations, which protects the eggs like a heteroderid cyst. The female secretes from the vulva a gelatinous matrix, which becomes hardened in time and encases its body for protection against predation and parasitism by biological antagonists as has been suggested for other tylenchuloid nematodes. No egg deposition outside the female body was observed. Second-stage juveniles of this species have a semi-endoparasitic, rather than endoparasitic, habit as in other known Meloidoderita species. This is the first report of a sphaeronematid having a cyst stage fitting the definition of a heteroderid cyst. Phylogenetic relationships between some species of Tylenchuloidea and Criconematina are analysed using the partial 18S rRNA, the D2-D3 of 28S rRNA and the ITS rRNA gene sequences.

Affiliations: 1: 1CNR, Istituto per la Protezione Sostenibile delle Piante, Via G. Amendola 122/D, Bari 70126, Italy ; 2: 2Plant Pest Diagnostic Center, California Department of Food and Agriculture, 3294 Meadowview Road, Sacramento, CA 95832, USA ; 3: 3Center of Parasitology of A.N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskii Prospect 33, Moscow 117071, Russia ; 4: 4Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, DPI, Nematology Section, P.O. Box 147100, Gainesville, FL 32614-7100, USA

*Corresponding author, e-mail:

Full text loading...


Data & Media loading...

1. Andrews S.W., Krusberg L.R., Golden A.M. (1981). "The host range, life-cycle and host-parasite relationships of Meloidoderita sp". Nematologica Vol 27, 146-159. DOI: 10.1163/187529281X00205 [Crossref]
2. Ashrafi S., Mugniéry D., van Heese E.Y.J., van Aelst A.C., Helder J., Karssen G. (2012). "Description of Meloidoderita salina sp. n. (Nematoda, Sphaeronematidae) from tidal salt marsh at Mont-Saint-Michel Bay in France". ZooKeys Vol 249, 1-26. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.249.4138 [Crossref]
3. Chizhov V.N., Chumakova O.A., Subbotin S.A., Baldwin J.G. (2006). "Morphological and molecular characterization of foliar nematodes of the genus Aphelenchoides: A. fragariae and A. ritzemabosi (Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae) from the main botanical garden of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow". Russian Journal of Nematology Vol 14, 179-184.
4. Cohn E., Mordechai M. (1982). "Biology and host-parasite relations of a species of Meloidoderita (Nematoda: criconematoidea)". Revue de Nématologie Vol 5, 247-256.
5. Decraemer W., Hunt D.J. (2013). "Structure and classification". In: Perry R.N., Moens M. (Eds). Plant nematology, 2nd edition. Wallingford, UK, CAB International, pp.  3-39. DOI: 10.1079/9781845930561.0000 [Crossref]
6. El-Borai F.E., Duncan L.W., Graham J.H. (2002). "Eggs of Tylenchulus semipenetrans inhibit growth of Phytophthora nicotianae and Fusarium solani in vitro". Journal of Nematology Vol 34, 267-272.
7. Esser R.P. (1986). "A water agar en face technique". Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington Vol 53, 254-255.
8. Golden A.M., Handoo Z.A. (1984). "Description of Meloidoderita polygoni. n. sp. (Nematoda: Meloidoderitidae) from USA and observations on M. kirjanovae from Israel and USSR". Journal of Nematology Vol 16, 265-282.
9. Goodey J.B. (1958). "Sphaeronema minutissimum n. sp. (Sphaeronematidae: Tylenchulidae)". Nematologica Vol 3, 169-172. DOI: 10.1163/187529258X00382 [Crossref]
10. Hooper D.J. (1970). "Handling, fixing, staining and mounting nematodes". In: Southey J.F. (Ed.). Laboratory methods for work with plant and soil nematodes. Technical bulletin 2, 5th edition. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. London, UK, Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, pp.  39-54.
11. Huelsenbeck J.P., Ronquist F. (2001). "MRBAYES: Bayesian inference of phylogeny". Bioinformatics Vol 17, 754-755. DOI: 10.1093/bioinformatics/17.8.754 [Crossref]
12. Jenkins W.R. (1964). "A rapid centrifugal-flotation method for separating nematodes from soil". Plant Disease Reporter Vol 48, 692.
13. Kirjanova E.S., Poghossian E.E. (1973). ["Redescription of Meloidoderita kirjanovae Poghossian, 1966 (Nematoda: Meloidoderitidae, fam. n.)".] Parazitologiya Vol 7, 280-285.
14. Luc M., Weischer B., Stone A.R., Baldwin J.G. (1986). "On the definition of heteroderid cysts". Revue de Nématologie Vol 9, 418-421.
15. Palomares-Rius J.E., Vovlas N., Subbotin S.A., Troccoli A., Cantalapiedra-Navarrete C., Liébanas G., Chizhov V.N., Landa B.B., Castillo P. (2010). "Molecular and morphological characterization of Sphaeronema alni Turkina & Chizhov, 1986 (Nematoda: Sphaeronematidae) from Spain compared with a topotype population from Russia". Nematology Vol 12, 649-659. DOI: 10.1163/138855410X489338 [Crossref]
16. Poghossian E.E. (1966). ["A new genus and species of nematode of the family Heteroderidae from the Armenian SSR (Nematoda)".] Doklady of the Academy of Sciences of the Armenian SSR Vol 47, 117-123.
17. Raski D.J., Luc M. (1987). "A reappraisal of Tylenchina (Nemata) 10. The superfamily Criconematoidea Taylor, 1936". Revue de Nématologie Vol 10, 409-444.
18. Raski D.J., Sher S.A. (1952). "Sphaeronema californicum, nov. gen., nov. spec., (Criconematidae: sphaeronematinae, nov. subfam.) an endoparasite of the roots of certain plants". Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington Vol 19, 77-80.
19. Siddiqi M.R. (1986). Tylenchida parasites of plants and insects. Farnham Royal, UK, Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux.
20. Siddiqi M.R. (2000). Tylenchida parasites of plants and insects, 2nd edition. Wallingford, UK, CABI Publishing. DOI: 10.1079/9780851992020.0000 [Crossref]
21. Skarbilovich S.T. (1947). ["Revision of the systematics of the nematode family Anguillulinidae Baylis and Daubney, 1926".] Doklady of the USSR Academy of Sciences Vol 57, 307-308.
22. Sledge E.B., Christie J.B. (1962). "Sphaeronema whittoni n. sp. (Nematoda: Criconematidae)". Nematologica Vol 8, 11-14. [Crossref]
23. Spiegel Y., Cohn E. (1985). "Chitin present in the gelatinous matrix of Meloidogyne". Revue de Nématologie Vol 8, 184-186.
24. Subbotin S.A., Sturhan D., Chizhov V.N., Vovlas N., Baldwin J.G. (2006). "Phylogenetic analysis of Tylenchida Thorne, 1949 as inferred from D2 and D3 expansion fragments of the 28S rRNA gene sequences". Nematology Vol 8, 455-474. DOI: 10.1163/156854106778493420 [Crossref]
25. Tanha Maafi Z., Subbotin S.A., Moens M. (2003). "Molecular identification of cyst-forming nematodes (Heteroderidae) from Iran and a phylogeny based on ITS-rDNA sequences". Nematology Vol 5, 99-111. DOI: 10.1163/156854102765216731 [Crossref]
26. Thompson J.D., Gibson T.J., Plewniak F., Jeanmougin F., Higgins D.G. (1997). "The ClustalX windows interface: flexible strategies for multiple sequence alignment aided by quality analysis tools". Nucleic Acids Research Vol 24, 4876-4882. [Crossref]
27. Van den Berg E., Spaull V.W. (1982). "A new Meloidoderita species on sugar cane in South Africa (Nematoda: Meloidoder4itidae)". Phytophylactica Vol 14, 205-213.
28. Vovlas N., Landa B.B., Liebanas G., Handoo Z.A., Subbotin S.A., Castillo P. (2006). "Characterization of the cystoid nematode Meloidoderita kirjanovae (Nematoda: Sphaeronematidae) from South Italy". Journal of Nematology Vol 38, 376-382.

Article metrics loading...



Can't access your account?
  • Tools

  • Add to Favorites
  • Printable version
  • Email this page
  • Subscribe to ToC alert
  • Get permissions
  • Recommend to your library

    You must fill out fields marked with: *

    Librarian details
    Your details
    Why are you recommending this title?
    Select reason:
    Nematology — Recommend this title to your library
  • Export citations
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation