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Redescription of Filenchus annulatus (Siddiqui & Khan, 1983) Siddiqi, 1986 based on specimens from Iran with contributions to the molecular phylogeny of the Tylenchidae

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For more content, see Nematologica.

Filenchus annulatus is redescribed and males are characterised for the first time based on a population found in Northern Khorasan province, Iran. New morphological characterisation is based on light and scanning electron microscopy. In addition, molecular analyses based on 18S and 28S genes are included to test monophyly of the genus. Females from the Iranian population have a spermatheca typically filled with sperm. Generally males are similar to females, ranging from 306 to 426 μm long. Spicules are arcuate, cephalated and 11.5-14.0 μm long, the gubernaculum is minute and trough-shaped and the caudal alae are adanal. Phylogenetic analyses differed in results depending on the gene used: 28S gene strongly supports Filenchus as monophyletic whereas 18S shows Filenchus as polyphyletic. In both gene phylogenies, F. annulatus is placed as a sister taxon of F. quartus from Wyoming, USA. Although sequence divergence between these two species is only 3 base pairs and 1 base pair for 28S and 18S genes, respectively, strong morphological differences support their species status. Relationships between Filenchus and other Tylenchidae genera are also gene dependent. Such differences in tree topologies and branch support are related to the number of Filenchus species used in the analyses (greater for 18S gene) and gene resolution (greater for 28S gene). Molecular phylogenies also suggest that other Tylenchidae genera (i.e., Psilenchus, Cephalenchus and Eutylenchus) belong to separate clades, as is also suggested by some morphology-based classifications. The inclusion of more taxa and perhaps additional genes is needed further to clarify Filenchus relationships and further to test its monophyly.

Affiliations: 1: 1Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran, Iran; 2: 4Islamic Azad University, Eslamshahar Branch, Tehran, Iran; 3: 2Department of Nematology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA; 4: 5CIIDIR-IPN, Unidad Sinaloa, Mexico


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