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Effect of salt and temperature stresses on survival and infectivity of Heterorhabditis spp. IJs

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Heterorhabditis is frequently found in coastal sandy soils where it may experience both high salinity and high temperatures. We tested the ability of infective juveniles (IJs) of three taxonomic groups of Heterorhabditis to infect insects in saline sand. We also tested whether salinity (sea water) affected the IJs' ability to tolerate elevated temperatures in aqueous suspension and in sand. IJs of all three taxonomic groups killed Galleria mellonella in saline sand (25.6% insects killed), but at a lower level than in non-saline sand (96.5% insects killed). Exposure of IJs in sand to high temperature reduced their ability to kill G. mellonella at 20 degrees C; heating IJs in saline sand reduced G. mellonella mortality to a lesser extent (25.6% at 20 degrees C, 18.3% at 39 degrees C) than heating in non-saline sand (96.5% at 20 degrees C, 17.5% at 39 degrees C). In aqueous suspension, IJs of the North-West European and Irish types of Heterorhabditis tolerated high temperature better in sea water (at least 95% survived 1 h at 39 C) than in distilled water (none survived 1 h at 38 degrees C). H. bacteriophora was more temperature tolerant: survival and subsequent infectivity of IJs was unaffected by temperature up to 39 degrees C in either medium. It was concluded that high salinity (sea water) reduces the ability of Heterorhabditis IJs to infect, but improves their tolerance of high temperature.

Effets des chocs dus a la salinite et a la temperature sur la survie et l'infestivite des juveniles infestants d' Heterorhabditis spp. - Les Heterorhabditis sont frequemment rencontres dans les sols sableux cotiers ou ils peuvent etre soumis a des salinites et des temperatures elevees. Nous avons teste la capacite des juveniles infestants (IJs) de trois groupes taxinomiques d'Heterorhabditis a infester des insectes dans du sable sale. Nous avons aussi cherche a savoir si la salinite (eau de mer) affecte la capacite des IJs a tolerer des temperatures elevees, soit en suspension aqueuse, soit dans du sable. Les IJs des trois troupes taxinomiques tuent les Galleria mellonella dans le sable sale, mais a un taux plus faible que dans le sable non sale (25,6 contre 96,5% des insectes tues). L'exposition des IJs dans du sable a des temperatures elevees reduit leur capacite a tuer G. mellonella a 20 degrees C; le chauffage des IJs dans du sable sale reduit la mortalite des G. mellonella dans un moindre mesure (25,6 a 20 degrees C contre 18,3% a 39 degrees C) que dans du sable non sale (96,5% a 20 degrees C contre 17,5% a 39 degrees C). En suspension aqueuse, les IJs des types Europe du nord-ouest et d'Irlande tolerent mieux les temperatures elevees dans l'eau de mer (au moins 95% survivent 1 h a 39 degrees C) que dans l'eau distillee (aucune survie apres 1 h a 38 degrees C). H. bacteriophora montre la meilleure tolerance a la temperature: la survie et l'infestivite ulterieures des IJs ne sont pas affectees par la temperature jusqu'a 39 degrees C dans l'un et l'autre milieux. Il en est conclu que les salinites elevees (eau de mer) reduisent la capacite d'infestation des IJs d'Heterorhabditis, mais ameliorent leur tolerance aux temperatures elevees.


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