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Juvenile development and life cycle of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and H. indica (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae)

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For more content, see Nematologica.

Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and H. indica were cultured in vitro in monoxenic liquid cultures. Nematodes were examined for morphological characters which can be used to determine the sexes in all juvenile stages. When hatching from the egg no sex-specific characters could be distinguished. Twelve hours later sex determination resulted in male phenotypes which were identified by the asymmetric shape of the primordial testis. Female phenotypes, with symmetrical primordial gonads, were observed 12 h later. Of the eggs laid by the parental hermaphrodite 57% developed to amphimictic adults. The other individuals were determined to become automictic dauer juveniles which further develop to hermaphrodites. The pre-dauer J1 was the last of the first juvenile stages to be determined. They moult to the pre-dauer second stage juvenile (J2D) which is distinguished from the other J2 stages by a thin and spindle-like shape, elongated pharynx and needle-like tip of the tail. The late JD2 stage is immobile, pharyngeal pumping ceases and intercalated fat reserves make it appear darker then the amphimictic J2. The further development to adults is described and the occurrence of the different stages in liquid culture documented. Developpement larvaire et cycle biologique d'Heterorhabditis bacteriophora et H. indica (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae) - Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and H. indica ont ete eleves in vitro sur milieux liquides monoxeniques. Les nematodes ont ete etudies pour les caracteres morphologiques qui pourraient etre utilises dans la determination des sexes dans tous les stades juveniles. A l'eclosion, aucun caractere sexuel specifique n'a pu etre identifie. Douze heures plus tard, le dimorphisme sexuel se revele avec des phenotypes males caracterises par la forme asymetrique du testicule. Les phenotypes femelles avec des primordium symetriques ont ete observes 12 h plus tard. 57% des individus issus des oeufs de parent hermaphrodite se sont developpes en adulte amphimictique. Les autres individus se sont developpes en dauerlarva automictiques qui se sont plus tard developpes en hermaphrodites. La pre-dauerlarvae (J1) a ete le dernier des stades juveniles a etre identifie. Ils ont mue en stade pre-dauer J2 qui peut etre differencie des autres stades J2 par le corps mince et fusiforme, un pharynx allonge et l'extemite de la queue tres effilee. Le dernier stade DJ2 est immobile, le pompage pharyngien cesse et des reserves lipidiques interstitielles le rendent plus sombre que chez le stade amphimictique J2. Le developpement jusqu'a l'adulte est decrit et l'apparition de differents stades en milieu de culture liquide est detaillee.


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