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Observations on the community dynamics of plant parasitic nematodes of rice in Cote d'Ivoire

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The population dynamics of nematode communities were studied during a rice cropping season in 22 fields in the humid forest zone of Cote d'Ivoire. Rainfed upland, hydromorphic, and lowland rice fields were examined during the 1996 growing season and compared to nematode communities in adjacent undisturbed forest and vegetation. Forest clearance and burning had little immediate influence on nematode species diversity. Thirty days after the introduction of rice, nematode species diversity across ecosystems was reduced by 57% to seventeen species. At harvest, species diversity was 55% lower than in adjacent forest and vegetation. With progression of the season, a small percentage of nematode genera became numerically dominant, while the greater proportion of nematode genera were present at low mean intensity. At harvest Meloidogyne spp. were numerically dominant in upland rice and Hemicycliophora oostenbrinki numerically dominant in hydromorphic rice, accounting for 74 and 75% of total mean intensity in upland and hydromorphic ecosystems, respectively. Lowland rice communities were characterised by low nematode intensity and low species diversity. Dominant species at harvest were Helicotylenchus spp. (52% of total mean intensity) which were undetected at sowing. Other nematodes which persisted under rice at low mean intensity in various ecosystems were Trichodorus eburneus, Xiphinema hygrophilum and Pratylenchus brachyurus. Observation sur la dynamique des peuplements de nematodes parasites du riz en Cote d'Ivoire - La dynamique des peuplements de nematodes a ete etudiee au cours d'une saison rizicole dans 22 champs de Cote d'Ivoire situes en zone forestiere humide. Ces champs (riz de plateau, pluvial et de bas-fonds) ont ete explores durant la periode de culture en 1996 et leurs peuplements compares a ceux des forets et autres vegetations naturelles avoisinantes. L'essartage et le brulis n'ont qu'une influence immediate faible sur la diversite specifique des nematodes. Trente jours apres la mise en place du riz cette diversite liee aux ecosystemes etait reduite de 57%, c'est a dire a dix-sept especes. Au moment de la recolte, la diversite specifique etail inferieure de 55% a celle de la foret ou de la vegetation voisines. Avec l'avancement de la saison de culture, un faible pourcentage de genres de nematodes devient numeriquement dominant tandis que la majeure partie des genres demeurent presents a des taux moyens faibles. Au moment de la recolte, les Meloidogyne sont numeriquement dominants pour le riz de plateau tandis que c'est Hemicycliophora oostenbrinki pour le riz pluvial, ces deux espece representant respectivement 74 et 75% des taux moyens des peuplements. Les peuplements de riz de bas-fonds se caracterisent par des taux de population et une diversite faibles. A la recolte, les especes dominantes sont celles du genre Helicotylenchus (52%) alors qu'elles etaient indetectables au moment du semis. Les autres nematodes persistants a des taux faibles dans les differents eco-systemes sont Trichodorus eburneus, Xiphinema hygrophilum et Pratylenchus brachyurus.


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