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Nematicidal metabolites produced by Photorhabdus luminescens (Enterobacteriaceae), bacterial symbiont of entomopathogenic nematodes

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The secondary metabolites, 3,5-dihydroxy-4-isopropylstilbene (ST) and indole, from the culture filtrate of Photorhabdus luminescens MD, were shown to have nematicidal properties. ST caused nearly 100% mortality of J4 and adults of Aphelenchoides rhytium , Bursaphelenchus spp. and Caenorhabditis elegans at 100 mu g/ml, but had no effect on J2 of Meloidogyne incognita or infective juveniles (IJ) of Heterorhabditis megidis at 200 mu g/ml. Indole was lethal to several nematode species at 300 mu g/ml, and caused a high percentage of Bursaphelenchus spp. (J4 and adults), M. incognita (J2) and Heterorhabditis spp. (IJ) to be paralysed at 300, 100 and 400 mu g/ml, respectively. Both ST and indole inhibited egg hatch of M. incognita . ST repelled IJ of some Steinernema spp. but not IJ of Heterorhabditis spp., and indole repelled IJ of some species of both Steinernema and Heterorhabditis . ST, but not indole, was produced in nematode-infected larval Galleria mellonella after 24 h infection. Von Photorhabdus luminescens (Enterobacteriaceae), einem Symbionten entomopathogener Nematoden gebildete nematizide Metaboliten - Es wurde gezeigt, dass die Sekundarmetaboliten 3,5-Dihydroxy-4-isopropylstilben (ST) und Indol aus dem Kulturfiltrat von Photorhabdus luminescens MD nematizide Eigenschaften besassen. In einer Konzentration von 100 mu g/ml verursachte ST eine fast 100%ige Sterblichkeit bei J4 und Adulten von Aphelenchoides rhytium , Bursaphelenchus spp. und Caenorhabditis elegans , hatte aber bei 200 mu g/ml keine Wirkung auf J2 von Meloidogyne incognita oder auf Infektionsjuvenile (IJ) von Heterorhabditis megidis . Bei 300 mu g/ml war Indol fur etliche Nematodenarten todlich und fuhrte dazu, dass Bursaphelenchus spp. (J4 and Adulte) bei 300, M. incognita (J2) bei 100, und Heterorhabditis spp. (IJ) bei 400 mu g/ml zu einem grossen Teil gelahmt wurden. ST und Indol behinderten beide das Schlupfen von M. incognita . ST wirkte abstossend auf IJ einiger Steinernema -Arten aber nicht auf IJ von Heterorhabditis spp., und Indol wirkte abstossend auf IJ einiger Arten der beiden Gattungen Steinernema und Heterorhabditis . ST wurde in nematoden-befallenen Larven von Galleria mellonella 24 h nach der Infektion gebildet, Indol dagegen nicht.


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